Sustainable Ecosystems exam 1

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Sustainable Ecosystems exam 1
2011-09-16 21:46:01
sustainable ecosystems

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  1. Watershed
    • An area of terrestrial environment that's drained by a river (1 sq. meter needs at least 20x; this makes a watershed)
    • things that occur upstream and downstream are also included in this ecosystem
    • cultural eutrophication is a big downstream effect
    • looking at a watershed as an entire system determines water management strategies
  2. Population
    • Any group of organisms of the same species that live together and reproduce
    • Can also be different types of the same organisms
    • Example: three types of goats make populations
  3. Population Density
    • A emergent property of populations
    • The number of individuals per area
    • this is not as important compared to how the population changes over time
  4. Crude Density
    The number of individuals divided by the total area
  5. Ecological density
    The # of individuals divided by the habitat Area of Volume
  6. Relative abundance
    The # of individuals divided by the unit of effort (time limit to catch something)
  7. Natality
    • The ability of a population to increase through reproduction
    • Important factors of Natality: clutch or litter size, age at first reproduction, % of females breeding in a population, etc.
  8. Maximum natality/minimum natality
    • theoretical maximum production of new individuals
    • usually happens when there are ideal, perfect conditions
  9. Absolute natality/mortality rate
    • births/death per unit of time
    • mostly influenced by physiological factors like germination
  10. ecological natality/mortality rate
    • physiological and ecological factors
    • births/death per unit of time
  11. specific natality/mortality
    • births/death per (individual*time)
    • Use this when you are comparing rates of different species
  12. Mortality
    • Deaths of individuals in a population
    • rates vary with age
    • for example, a species will have high death rates at a younger age
  13. Survivorship
    • The chances that a species will survive at different stages in the life of an organism
    • differes amongst all species
    • For example, a species where the young are cared for at birth (humans and dolphins) have a higher survivorship rate than species that are left alone at birth (octupi and turtles)
  14. Carrying Capacity
    • The amount of species that a an area can sustain over time
    • Denoted as K in a sigmoid growth curve
  15. Assumptions about carrying capacity
    • There are no seasons
    • resources are unlimited (space, food, no predation)
    • all organisms are identical in age and size
    • no immigration or emigration
    • no genetic variations
  16. Exponential Growth
    • When a species explodes at an extremely fast rate
    • J-shaped growth curve
    • Usually doesn't last long since it burns up resources at the same rate.
  17. Logistical growth
    After a population exponentially grows, it will level out around the carrying capacity
  18. Maximum Carrying capacity
    Km : The maximum population density that a habitat can support with its resources
  19. Optimum carrying capacity
    K0 : A population that can be supported without hovering above or below the maximum carrying capacity
  20. Random dispersion pattern
    • Where there are no patterns to how a species aggregate
    • example: daisies
  21. Uniform dispersion pattern
    • When there is an even amount of space between individuals
    • competition is usually strong
    • example: penguins
  22. Clumped dispersion
    • When individuals cluster together
    • can be in a random or uniform pattern
    • example: wolves
  23. Metapopulation
    • Habitat islands thats are connected by dispersal corridors but are still part of one population
    • if one goes extinct the others are able to recolonize it
  24. Natural Selection
    • A process in which the genetic traits of a species change because of differential survival and reproductive success of individuals
    • A method of a species will use to adapt to the environment
    • variability in individuals determine resiliancy to changes
  25. Evolution
    The process of change of traits in organisms, populations, and species
  26. 3 levels of genetic diversity
    • Genetic variation within individuals
    • Genetic differences within a population
    • genetic difference among populations
  27. Community
    • All different populations occupying a given area
    • how do they interact with each other?
  28. Coevolution
    • when two or more species (that don't interbreed) evolve together because of their ecological relationship
    • example: Insects and pesticides evolving in reaction to each other becoming stronger
  29. Invasive species
    • When an outside species is introduced into a community
    • A tree and a catepillar coevolve with each other and then anoter catepillar comes in and the tree cannot defend against it
  30. Intraspecific competition
    competition that occurs within a species
  31. Interspecific competition
    • Competition that happens between two or more species
    • there needs to be a negative effect
  32. Interference competition
    • Interspecific
    • Different species directly compete for resources
    • fighting
  33. Exploitation competition
    • Interspecific
    • A species uses a resource that another one uses however the two different species don't come into contact
    • A leopard bringing its prey up into a tree so a lion doesn't get it
  34. Pre-emption competition
    • Interspecific competition
    • A species controls a resouce by controlling the space its resource is located
    • Territory marking
  35. Outcomes of interspecific competition
    • 1. Gause Principle: one species out-competes the other and replaces it
    • 2. Interdeterminacy: The winning competitor is determined by the initial conditions
    • 3. coexistence: species co-occur due to niche differences
  36. Habitiat
    Where the organism lives
  37. Niche
    • What a species does with its biotic and abiotic factors in the environment
    • what it eats, the space it needs, when its active, its tolerable temperature range
  38. Competitive exclusion principle
    Two species cannot coexist if they have similiar niches
  39. realized niche
    A species actual niche
  40. fundamental niche
    the niche a species potentially occupies
  41. Resource
    • Anything a species uses for survival
    • food, water, space, mates
  42. Predation
    • When a species consumes a prey species for survival
    • predator population is usually larger than prey population
  43. mutualism
    When both species benifit from their interactions
  44. parasitism
    Where one species lives off of another species
  45. Keystone species
    • If one species is removed from the ecosystem, the entire ecosystem can collapse or be altered
    • if sea otters are removed, sea urchins will flourish and destory kelp forests which are home to millions of fish
  46. Ecosystem
    • Any area that includes all of its organisms interacting with the physical environment
    • biotic(living)+abiotic(non-living)=ecosystem
    • the two are connectied through flows of energy and cycling of materials
  47. Respiration
    The process in which autotrophs convert biomass into energy in the form of ATP
  48. Turnover
    Measures how fast an ecosystem can cycle (or replace) nutrients
  49. Genetic Diversity
    The genetic variability within individuals, populations, and communities
  50. Species diversity
    The variability of species in an ecosystem
  51. Functional diversity
    • All the different processes that maintain an ecosystem
    • Nitrogen fixers, predators, and grazers
  52. Diversity
    • All the different things about an ecosystem
    • Increases when you move closer to the equator and in lower elevations
  53. Species Richness
    the number of species in a community or ecosystem
  54. Relative abundance
    • Distribution of individuals among species
    • if there is an even amount between species you have evenness
    • if there are more species compared to others you have dominance
  55. Productivity
    • Storing the suns energy as potential energy in food
    • Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis,
  56. Decomposition
    • Releasing the sun's energy from biomass and food
    • determined by quality of detritus and abiotic conditions
    • matter decomposes better in warm and wet climates
    • aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, fermentation, detrivores
  57. Autotroph
    • A species that takes in energy from the sun and provides energy to heterotrophs
    • grass and plankton
  58. heterotroph
    • A species that needs to consume another species that is usually lower on the trophic structure.
    • cows and wolves
  59. Primary production
    the synthesis and storage of organic molecules in plants
  60. Ecology
    • The study of the natural environment
    • includes the relationships of organisms to each other and their environment
  61. Landscapes
    heterogeneous area composed of interacting ecosystems
  62. Biome/
    A large, regional or sub-continental system characterized by a major type of vegetation or landscape trait
  63. Region
    • Large geological or political area
    • may have on biome