Social Psychology - Exam 2

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kelc
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101876
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Social Psychology - Exam 2
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2011-10-02 16:11:05
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social psychology
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the self, attribution theory, social cognition and attitudes
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  1. Social behavior
    behavior that takes place in a social context and results from interaction between individuals
  2. Social psychology
    study of social behavior
  3. Hypotheses
    tentative predictions or explanations for an observation or phenomenon that can be empirically tested
  4. Internal validity
    the extent to which an association between an independent variable and a dependent variable reflects a causal relationship between the two
  5. External validity
    the extent to which the results of research can be applied to circumstances outside the specific setting in which the research was conducted
  6. Demand characteristics
    environmental cues that make participants aware of what the experimenter expects to find or how participants are expected to behave
  7. Experimenter effects
    subtle cues or signals that are given out by an experimenter who knows the experimental hypothesis
  8. Archival research
    the reanalysis and interpretation of information collected by others for a different purpose
  9. Self
    fundamental part of every human, a symbolic construct which reflects our consciousness of our own identity
  10. Self-awareness
    • psychological state in which people are aware of their traits, feelings and behavior
    • realizations of oneself as an individual entity
  11. Anterior cingulate
    are of the frontal lobe in the cerebral cortex responsible for monitoring/controlling intentional behavior
  12. Private self-awareness
    when an individual temporarily becomes aware of private, personal aspects of the self
  13. Intensified emotional response
    when reflecting on one's feelings intensifies them with private self-awareness
  14. Clarification of knowledge
    more accurate self-knowledge with private self-awareness
  15. Adhere to personal standards of behavior
    more aware of true beliefs and acting in line with them with private self-awareness
  16. Public self-awareness
    when a person is aware of public aspects of themselves that can be seen and evaluated by others
  17. Evaluation apprehension
    concern about being evaluated by others in public self-awareness
  18. Loss of self-esteem
    if a person's actual public image does not match their desired public image, public self-awareness can lead to this
  19. Adherence to social standards of behavior
    more likely to conform to group norms even if it goes against their normal attitudes in public self-awareness
  20. Self-consciousness
    chronic self-awareness
  21. Private self-consciousness
    experience more intense emotions, more likely to remain true to personal beliefs, and have more accurate self-perceptions
  22. Public self-consciousness
    more likely to adhere to group norms, avoid embarrassing situations, concerned with own physical appearance, and likely to judge others based on their physical appearances
  23. Schemas
    cognitive structures that represent the knowledge we have about a particular concept or type of stimulus
  24. Self-schematic
    we are self-schematic on a particular self-schema if it is highly embedded in our self-concept; this is likely to be the case for a self-schema that we are extreme on, that is particularly important to us, and for which we are certain that the opposite is not true
  25. Self-aschematic
    occurs on a dimension if it is not important to you and does not reflect who you are
  26. Control theory of self-regulation
    theory proposing that we use our self-awareness to assess whether or not we are meeting our goals and, if not, make efforts to improve the self in line with these goals
  27. Test phase of control theory of self-regulation
    compare the self against one of two standards; public or private based on type of self-awareness
  28. Operation phase of control theory of self-regulation
    change in behavior in order to meet the chosen standard
  29. Re-testing phase of control theory of self-regulation
    re-compare self against public or private standard
  30. Exit phase of control theory of self-regulation
    if self and standard align with each other, the individual exits the self-regulation loop
  31. Self-discrepancy theory
    according to this theory, we compare the self to two points of reference, the ideal self and the ought self. Discrepancies between actual and ideal self can lead to dejection-related emotions and discrepancies between actual and ought self lead to agitation-related emotions
  32. Actual self (Higgins)
    reflects how we are at present
  33. Ideal self (Higgins)
    point of reference which reflects how we would really like to be
  34. Ought self (Higgins)
    represents the traits or characteristics that an individual believes they should possess, based on a sense of duty, responsibility or obligation
  35. Social comparison theory
    theory that proposes that we form a definition of the self by comparing ourselves with those around us
  36. Self-evaluation maintenance model
    Tesser proposed that comparison with someone who is successful results in self-reflection or social-comparison, depending on whether that success is relevant domain, and on whether we are certain of our own performance in that domain
  37. Social reflection
    associating ourselves with the success of close others
  38. Upward social comparison
    comparing our achievements with the achievements of others who we believe are outperforming us
  39. Four strategies in the self-evaluation model
    • 1. exaggerate the ability of successful target
    • 2. change the target of comparison
    • 3. distance the self from successful target
    • 4. devalue the dimension of comparison
  40. Individual self - Brewer & Gardner
    unique, personal aspects of the self - personality traits and personal preferences
  41. Relational self - Brewer and Gardner
    defined by our relationships with significant others
  42. Collective self - Brewer and Gardner
    aspects of the self that reflect relationships with other individuals and groups - family status
  43. Social identity theory
    theory which proposes that when our membership in a particular group is salient, it is our social self rather than our personal self that guides our self-concept, attitudes and behavior - this explains how affiliation to groups influences behavior
  44. Personal identity
    reflects idiosyncratic aspects of the self, including our personality traits and our close relationships with other individuals
  45. Social identity
    reflects our membership in a particular group, and incorporates the attitudes, behaviors and social norms associated with that group
  46. Group norms
    a collection of shared beliefs about how group members should think and behave
  47. Self-categorization theory
    an extension of social identity theory which proposes that when an individual's social identity is salient they come to see themselves as a depersonalized group member rather than an idiosyncratic individual - they self-stereotype
  48. Depersonalization
    when group membership is salient, individuals come to see themselves in terms of the shared features that define the group membership, thinking and behaving as a group member rather than as a unique individual
  49. Meta-contrast principle
    group members exaggerate similarities within the group and differences with other groups
  50. Self-esteem
    an individual's personal evaluation of their own self-concept
  51. Demanding aspect of parenting
    controlling, imposing rules and punishments
  52. Responsive aspect of parenting
    warm and supportive
  53. Authoritative parenting
    place a lot of demands on their child, imposing rules on them and disciplining them for disobedience but they are also responsive, supportive and warm
  54. Authoritarian parenting
    overly strict and demanding, failing to be responsive to the child's needs
  55. Permissive parenting
    responsive but not strict enough, indulging their child's every desire
  56. Mood regulation
    people with high self-esteem are better at regulating their mood than those with lower self-esteem and are better able to react constructively to life events
  57. Self-assessment
    people are motivated to hold an accurate self-perception and seek out information which will help them to do so
  58. Diagnostic tests
    evaluate the performance of an individual and distinguish their performance from the performance of others, when evaluating the self
  59. Self-verification
    people are motivated to confirm their existing self-perceptions and so often seek out similar others who are most likely to do so
  60. Self-enhancement
    people are motivated to hold a positive self-image and are selectively biased toward information that helps them to see themselves in a positive light
  61. Self-affirmation theory
    the idea that people respond to threats to self by affirming positive aspects of themselves, allowing them to maintain a positive self-concept
  62. Self-serving attribution bias
    we have a pervasive tendency to attribute successes to internal, personal attributes and failure to external factors outside of our control
  63. Including others in the self
    our self-concept cognitively overlaps with the self-concept of close friends and romantic partners
  64. Extended contact effect
    just knowing memebers of the ingroup who have friends in an outgroup reduces prejudice
  65. Social change strategy
    low status group members compete with the high status group to improve their status relative to that group
  66. Social creativity strategy
    low status group members finding new dimensions on which they compare more favorably
  67. Dis-identify
    strategy which members of a low status group use to maintain a positive self-concept by distancing themselves from the group, disregarding he importance of that group membership
  68. Basking in reflected glory
    people often derive a positive self-concept from the achievements of other group members even if they were not personally instrumental in those achievements
  69. Cutting off reflected failure
    when a group is unsuccessful, group members may limit damage to their own self-concept by distancing themselves from the group. However, this strategy is only used by individuals for whom the group is not highly important
  70. Individualist culture
    culture that promotes individual goals, initiative and achievements, encouraging people to view themselves as unique and independent individuals - US, UK
  71. Collectivist culture
    culture that promotes conformity, and actions that promote the best interests of the group rather than its individual members, placing high value on cooperation, social support and respect for others - China, India
  72. Bicultural
    people who are adept at dealing with both cultures (their own and their host society's)
  73. Alternation model
    an individual may successfully take part in two different cultures by understanding the cultural assumptions that guide attitudes and behavior in both, and switching smoothly between the two depending on the social context
  74. What is the basis for attribution theory?
    The idea of the naive scientist
  75. Who developed the naive scientist?
    Heider, 1958
  76. What two needs are people motivated by?
    • The need to form a coherent view of the world
    • The need to gain control over the environment
  77. How do we satisfy the needs for a coherent view of the world and control of the environment?
    We act as naive scientists, rationally and logically testing our hypotheses about the behavior of others
  78. What did Heider and Simmel (1994) study?
    The basic need to attribute causality
  79. How did Heider and Simmel illustrate the basic need of attributing causality?
    • Asked participants to simply describe the movement of abstract geometric shapes
    • Results:
    • Participants (all but one) described the movements as actions of animated beings - indicative of human intentions and motives
  80. Why do people have a basic need to attribute causality?
    • Ascribes meaning to our world
    • Makes the world clear, definable and predictable, thereby reducing uncertainty
  81. Locus of causality?
    Responsibility
  82. What are the two different ways behavior can be explained?
    Internal or external causes
  83. How can we subdivide internal and external causes of behavior?
    • 1. Stable vs unstable causes (stability)
    • 2. Controllable vs uncontrollable causes (controllability)
  84. Who developed the correspondent inference theory?
    Jones and Davis, 1965
  85. What type of attributions do people prefer to make? Why?
    Dispositional because they are more valuable with regard to making predictions about behavior
  86. How do we assess whether there is a correspondence between behavior and personality?
    Process three key types of information: social desirability, choice, and non-common effects
  87. Social desirability
    Internal attribution is more likely when socially undesirable behaviors are observed
  88. Choice (freely chosen?)
    Internal attribution is more likely when the actor has freely chosen the given behavior
  89. Noncommon effects
    Internal attribution is more likely when the outcome of a behavior has a unique effect
  90. How is the correspondent inference theory limited?
    It is limited to single instances of behavior and focuses on internal attributions
  91. How is the covariation model different from the correspondent inference theory?
    • It accounts for multiple observational points and details the processes that result in external as well as internal attributions
    • It expands on the correspondent inference theory
  92. What is the covariation principle?
    For something to be the cause of a particular behavior it must be present when the behavior is present and absent when the behavior is absent
  93. Who developed the covariation model?
    Kelley, 1967
  94. How do we determine causality with the covariation model?
    We ascribe causality to the cause that covaries with the behavior to the greatest extent
  95. What information is crucial for the covariation model to work?
    • Consensus
    • Consistency
    • Distinctiveness
  96. When consensus information is high and consistency and distinctiveness information is low, what does this imply about causation?
    Cause is internal disposition
  97. If consensus information is low and consistency and distinctiveness information is high, what does this imply about causality?
    Cause is external situation
  98. Is Kelley's covariation model easily applied and consistently used by all?
    No, it's idealized and individuals don't put the same amount of weight on each element (people pay more attention to target person information than the context)
  99. What happens when Kelley's model isn't applied correctly?
    Attributional biases
  100. What are attributional biases?
    Tendency in particular contexts to make one type of attribution over another
  101. What are the three most common attributional biases?
    • Fundamental attribution error
    • Actor-observer bias
    • Self serving attributions
  102. Who studied the fundamental attribution error?
    Jones and Harris in 1967
  103. What is the fundamental attribution error?
    Tendency to make internal rather than external attributions for people's behavior
  104. What study did Jones and Harris perform on the fundamental attribution error?
    • Had participants read essays written by fellow students for or against Fidel Castro
    • Students either picked their position on Castro or were assigned their position
    • Participants were then asked to guess what attitude the person had toward Castro
    • Results:
    • In choice condition participants reasonably assumed the writer had written based on their own opinion
    • Participants also thought that the essay reflected the writer's opinion in the non-choice condition as well
  105. Why does the fundamental attribution error occur?
    Perceptual salience - person being observed is the most perceptually salient aspect of the situation, so an internal attribution becomes much more accessible
  106. True or false: In non-Western cultures, the tendency to make internal attributions is just as fundamental as in Western cultures
    False: less fundamental in non-Western
  107. What is the tendency for people to attribute their own behavior to external causes but that of others to internal factors?
    The actor-observer bias
  108. Who performed an important study on the actor-observer bias?
    Storms, 1973
  109. What methods did Storms use in his study?
    • Two participants as observers and two as conversational actors
    • Two actors had a conversation with each other while being observed by the other two
    • The observers were then asked to attribute causality and judge whether the opinions reflected by the actors reflected their stable personality or not
    • Results:
    • Observers focused attention on the actor they were facing
    • Observers emphasized dispositional factors when explaining the actor's behaviors, but the actors emphasized situational factors when explaining their own behavior
    • This is caused by perceptual salience: actor's attention is away from them (external) and observer's attention is on the actor (internal)
    • Note that the actor-observer bias was reversed when the actors were shown videotapes of their opposite perspective before making attributions leading them to make internal attributions instead of the before stated external ones
  110. Olson and Ross, 1988, say what about the self serving attribution bias?
    The pervasive tendency to attribute successes to internal, personal attributions and failure to external factors outside of our control is how we protect and maintain our self esteem
  111. How does the self serving attribution bias work on a group level?
    We tend to attribute our group's successes to internal factors and other group's successes to external factors
  112. What negative effects can intergroup attributions cause?
    Can serve to propagate prejudice and discrimination in society
  113. What effect does our state of mind have on the types of attributions we make?
    State of mind can sometimes determine if we make an internal or external attribution
  114. Who studied the effects of the state of mind on attributions?
    Neumann, 2000
  115. What did Neumann test in 2000?
    • Participants were primed by pairing 20 symbols depicting everyday activities with 20 phrases describing the activities
    • They then had to come up with either self or other referent sentences, depending on which condition they had been assigned
    • After this, participants were instructed to go to a second lab down the hall and when they entered the lab an experimenter shouted at them to get out
    • Results:
    • Participants with self-referent mindset were more likely to react with guilt (internal attribution)
    • Participants with other-referent mindset were more likely to react with anger (external attribution)
    • Suggests that whether we feel guilty or angry after something bad happens may depend on factors entirely unrelated to the situation
  116. What do Neumann's finding support?
    Weiner's 1986 idea that anger emerges from external attributions for negative events while guilt from the internal attribution for negative events
  117. How are attitudes formed?
    Through self perception
  118. What is social influence?
    When we attribute credibility to people, we believe in them
  119. What is romantic love, according to attributions?
    We are fooled into love because we are making mis-attributions
  120. Who studied social representations?
    Moscovici, 1961
  121. What does Moscovici have to say about social representations?
    Social representation refer to shared beliefs and understandings between broad groups of people and these can include culturally held and transmitted knowledge about causal relations
  122. According the the theory of social representations, how is understanding of causality transformed and communicated?
    • Through informal discussion to form a common-place, consensually held belief - a social representation
    • This is in line with Heider's assertions that we are all naive scientists, attempting to make sense of the world around us
  123. Is the true self scientific?
    Yes
  124. Are the true self and self awareness the same?
    True self is often different from self awareness
  125. What do scientists believe about our perceptions?
    That we are trapped inside of them
  126. Which type of awareness is this: what you are aware of about your self?
    Private self awareness
  127. What type of awareness is this: awareness that others are aware of things you know about yourself
    Public self awareness
  128. What is this: if someone knows what we are thinking of, then we are being evaluated and this causes fear and we manage how we look through public self awareness
    Evaluation apprehension
  129. Where are we always locked?
    • In our minds
    • In our individual perceptions
  130. Information you store in your head about a concept?
    Schema
  131. What do schemas involve?
    • Information stored in your head
    • Emotions
    • Behaviors
  132. What is the self-concept equal to?
    Self schema
  133. How much you value yourself
    Esteem
  134. What is the evaluation of the self-concept?
    Self esteem
  135. What drives our behaviors?
    Our concept of our self
  136. What drives behavior pertaining to the self?
    Self motives
  137. Seeking out info to see ourselves in a positive light
    Self enhancement
  138. Inviting complements
    Self verification
  139. What allows us to think about who we are and how we are perceived by others?
    Reflexive thought
  140. What two variables does our level of self awareness depend on?
    • Situation
    • Personality
  141. The realization of oneself as an individual entity
    Self awareness
  142. At what age did babies recognize themselves in the mirror in Lewis and Brooks (1978) study?
    around 18 months
  143. What cells grow rapidly around 18 months of age?
    Spindle cells
  144. What are spindle cells?
    Specialized neurones in the anterior cingulate
  145. What part of brain is thought to be responsible for monitoring and controlling intentional behavior?
    Anterior cingulate in the cerebral cortex in the frontal lobe
  146. What area of the brain is activated when adults are self aware?
    Anterior cingulate
  147. The prefrontal cortex is thought to do what?
    Make inferences about what other people are thinking and process information about the self
  148. How can we infer what other people are thinking while processing information about ourselves?
    We might make inferences about the thoughts and feelings of others by imagining what our own thoughts and feelings would be if we were in the same situation
  149. Who are the researchers involved in studies on the prefrontal cortex?
    Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae (2005)
  150. What methods were used in Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae's (2005) study?
    • Participants went under an fMRI scan to show activity in different areas of the brain while making judgements about photographs of a series of faces
    • Participants either made judgements about the mental state of the person or a nonmental state task
    • After the fMRI, participants were shown each photograph again and reported how similar they perceived themselves to be to the person in the photo
  151. What were the results of Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae's study on the prefrontal cortex?
    • Participants showed mental activity in the prefrontal cortex when they were making inferences about mental states but not when they were making a judgement on the physical appearance of the person
    • There was also a correlation between the amount of activity in the cortex and perceived similarity of the participant to the individual when making judgements on mental state
  152. What can be interpreted from Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae's study?
    • The prefrontal cortex is specifically used when trying to understand the attributes that other people possess, but not for making more general judgements about others
    • When the participants believed they were more similar to the person in the photograph, they believed they were better able to predict the behavior of that individual on the basis of how they themselves would feel in the same situation
    • The prefrontal cortex showed greater activation during these times
  153. When do people become privately self aware?
    • When they see their face in a mirror
    • When they experience physiological arousal which may lead them to reflect on their emotional state
  154. If an individual already feels positive, what will reflection on those feelings lead to?
    Feeling even happier
  155. What did Scheier and Carver (1977) test?
    Private self awareness in emotional response
  156. What methods did Scheier and Carver use to test private self awareness, and what were the results?
    • Had participants read aloud a series of positive statements or a period of negative statements
    • They found that participants who looked at themselves in a mirror became more extreme in their emotional responses than participants who had not been looking in a mirror
  157. What consequences does private self awareness have?
    • Intensified emotional responses
    • Clarification of knowledge about self
    • Adherence to personal standards of behavior
  158. How do privately self aware individuals experience clarification of knowledge?
    By focusing on internal events they able to report them with greater accuracy
  159. Gibbons, Carver, Scheier, and Hormuth (1979) tested what?
    Private self awareness in clarification of knowledge
  160. Gibbons et al. (1979) used what methods for testing private self awareness, and what were the results?
    • Gave participants a placebo which they were told was a drug that would induce arousal and a number of other side effects
    • Results:
    • Participants with mirror-induced self awareness reported less arousal and fewer side effects than participants in a control condition who could not see themselves
    • Self aware individuals ignored the placebo and focused on how they were really feeling resulting in more accurate self perceptions
  161. How does more awareness of true beliefs influence behavior?
    Individuals who are more aware of their true beliefs will act in line with those beliefs rather than being influenced by normative pressures
  162. Scheier and Carver (1980) performed what study?
    Private self awareness and adherence to beliefs
  163. In Scheier and Carver's 1980 study on individual's adherence to beliefs, what methodology was used and what were the results?
    • Had participants write a counter-attitudinal essay using the theory of cognitive dissonance
    • Participants who wrote the essay in front of a mirror showed less attitude change than participants who wrote the essay without the mirror
  164. What is the theory of cognitive dissonance?
    People feel negative arousal if their attitudes and behavior are inconsistent and often deal with this by changing their attitudes in line with their behavior
  165. When are people publicly self aware?
    When they are being watched by others
  166. What can the fear of a negative evaluation lead to?
    • Nervousness
    • Loss of self esteem
  167. What can public self awareness lead to that is opposite of private self awareness?
    Adherence to social standards of behavior instead of to personal beliefs
  168. People high in private self consciousness experience what?
    • Chronically heightened private self awareness
    • More intense emotions
    • More likely to remain true to their personal beliefs
    • Have more accurate self perceptions
  169. What are the pros and cons of being chronically privately self aware?
    • Pros:
    • Less likely to experience ill health as a result of stress because they pay more attention to their physiological state
    • Cons:
    • Greater tendency to suffer from depression and neuroticism
    • More likely to pay attention to and ruminate about any feelings of unhappiness or discomfort
  170. What are individuals high in public self consciousness concerned with?
    How they are perceived by those around them
  171. What behaviors are publicly self conscious individuals going to portray?
    • More likely to adhere to group norms
    • More likely to avoid embarrassing situations
    • More concerned with their own physical appearance
    • More likely to judge others based on their physical appearance
  172. How is the knowledge we have about the world stored?
    Schemas
  173. What are schemas?
    Cognitive structures that represent the knowledge we have about a particular concept or type of stimulus
  174. How are schemas developed?
    Through our experiences with a stimulus
  175. What does each self-schema consist of?
    Our perception of our self, and our experience on that dimension of our self
  176. Who argued that if an aspect of the self is perceived as particularly important, the individual can be described as self-schematic on that dimension?
    Markus, 1977
  177. If the person thinks they are extreme on that dimension, and if they are certain that the opposite is not true for them, then the individual can be described as what on that dimension?
    Self schematic
  178. If a particular dimension is not important to you and does not reflect who you are, what would it be?
    Self aschematic
  179. Why are self schemas more likely to be more complex and varied than other schemas in memory?
    We acquire more information about the self than about anything else
  180. Markus and Sentis (1982) proposed what?
    As well as current self schema, we also hold possible future self schema
  181. Why would having complex and varied self schemas be beneficial for us?
    • Buffer us from negative events or failures in our lives
    • If we have one self schema producing a negative effect, we derive satisfaction from other self schemas to show ourselves in a positive light
  182. Dimensions on which we are self schematic are particularly likely to be activated in relevant domains. Who conducted a study on this?
    Markus (1977)
  183. What methods were used, and what were the results in Markus' 1977 study?
    • Participants who had either previously rated themselves as self-schematic on the trait of dependence or independence (or aschematic on both) completed a reaction-time task
    • They were presented with words on a screen associated with independence and dependence and were asked to press a "me" button if this described them or a "not me" button if it didn't
    • Results:
    • Participants who were self schematic on independence or dependence were much faster at identifying whether a word characterized them than participants who were aschematic on either of the characteristics
    • Self schematic participants also had better memory for incidents from the past which demonstrated their dependence or independence
  184. What are the six theories that explain how our self concept is managed and maintained?
    • 1. Control theory of self regulation
    • 2. Self discrepancy theory
    • 3. Social comparison theory
    • 4. Self evaluation maintenance model
    • 5. Social identity theory
    • 6. Self categorization theory
  185. What can the self be compared to?
    • Perceptions of how the self should be
    • Perceptions of the self to other individuals
    • Perceptions of the self to other groups
  186. What do the control theory of self regulation and the self discrepancy theory have in common?
    They both argue that when people are self aware, they can think about whether they are the sort of person they want to be or whether there are ways in which they would like to change
  187. What did Carver and Scheier (1981, 1998) propose in relation to self awareness and goals?
    Through self awareness, we are able to assess whether or not we are meeting our goals
  188. What is the central element of the control theory of self regulation?
    The cognitive feedback loop which illustrates four steps involved in self regulation
  189. What are the four steps in self regulation according to the control theory of self regulation?
    • 1. Test
    • 2. Operate
    • 3. Test
    • 4. Exit
  190. What occurs in the first test phase of the control theory of regulation?
    People compare the self against one of two standards - privately self aware people compare themselves again a private standard and publicly self aware people compare themselves against a public standard
  191. What is an example of a private standard a privately self aware individual would compare herself to?
    Values she believes to be important
  192. What is an example of a public standard a publicly self aware individual would compare himself to?
    Values held by his friends and family
  193. If an individual believes they have failed meet the relevant standard in the control theory of self regulation, what happens?
    They put into operation a change in behavior in order to meet the standard
  194. After the operation phase in the control theory of self regulation, what does the individual do next time they reflect on the issue?
    They retest themselves, comparing their self to their values/values of others for the second time
  195. If the self still falls short of the standard after the operation phase of the feedback loop, what happens?
    The feedback loop repeats itself
  196. If the self and standard are in line with another on the feedback loop, what occurs?
    The individual exits the feedback loop for that standard
  197. Who performed a study on the control theory of self regulation?
    Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, and Tice in 1998
  198. What methods did Baumeister et al. (1998) use for their study, and what were their results?
    • Participants were led to believe the study was about taste perception and were instructed to make sure they had not eaten for at least 3 hours
    • They entered a room with an oven in it with the aroma of chocolate and baking
    • They were seated at a table with chocolate cookies on one side and a bowl of radishes on the other
    • Radishes condition:
    • Participants were asked to eat at least 2 or 3 radishes
    • Only eat the food assigned
    • Chocolate condition:
    • Participants were asked to eat at least 2 or 3 cookies
    • Only eat the food assigned
    • Both conditions:
    • They were left alone for five minutes and observed
    • After completing the task, participants were asked if they minded helping out the experimenter by taking part in an unrelated experiment on problem solving
    • They were instructed to complete a problem solving task, taking as much time as they wanted and were told that they would not be judged on how long they took
    • The task had been prepared so it was impossible to solve
    • Results:
    • Participants in the radishes condition gave up more quickly than those in the chocolate condition
    • Participants who previously had to exert self control by only eating the radishes, were less able to persist on the difficult and frustrating puzzle task
    • Baumeister et al. argued that we have limited cognitive resources at our disposal to self regulate and when we self regulate in one domain, the resources we have left to self regulate in another domain are temporarily depleted
  199. Who argued that people possess three types of self schema?
    Higgins, 1987
  200. What are the three types of self schema
    • Actual self
    • Ideal self
    • Ought self
  201. According to the self discrepancy theory, people are motivated to ensure what?
    That their actual self matches their ideal self and ought self
  202. What is an actual-ideal discrepancy?
    Associated with the absence of positive outcomes, which result in dejection-related emotions like disappointment and sadness
  203. What is an actual-ought discrepancy?
    Associated with the presence of negative outcomes, which results in agitation-related emotions like anger, fear and nervousness
  204. What did Higgins, Bond, Klein and Strauman do in their study in 1986?
    • Identified participants who had previously reported either a low or a high discrepancy between their ideal and their actual and ought selves
    • Several weeks later, participants completed a task in which they either had to focus on and describe the difference between their ideal or ought self and their actual self
  205. What were the results of Higgins et al. study on the self discrepancy theory?
    • Participants with a high level of discrepancy showed an increase in dejection related emotions after thinking about their actual-ideal discrepancies, and an increase in agitation related emotions after thinking about their actual-ought discrepancies
    • Participants with low or no discrepancies showed no significant changes in their emotions
  206. What does self discrepancy theory imply about generating negative arousal?
    By generating negative arousal, discrepancies will motivate people to reduce the discomfort they are experiencing by making changes that reduce discrepancies
  207. What do social comparison theory and self evaluation maintenance theory argue?
    We learn about the self by comparing ourselves with other individuals
  208. What does social comparison theory argue?
    • That beliefs, feelings, and behaviors are subjective
    • There is no objective benchmark against which we can compare them
    • By comparing the self with others, we are given an objective benchmark to make comparisons to, providing us with a sense of validation for the way we are
  209. What is an upward comparison?
    Comparing the self to someone you believe to be better than you
  210. What is a downward comparison?
    Comparing the self to someone who you believe to be worse than you
  211. People motivated by a desire for an accurate self evaluation make what types of comparisons?
    Both upward and downward
  212. Who developed the self evaluation maintenance model?
    Tesser in 1988
  213. How do people respond to the success of someone else?
    • Social reflection
    • Upward social comparison
  214. When are we likely to engage in social reflection?
    • Domain in which the individual is successful must be irrelevant to us and doesn‚Äôt threaten our self concept
    • We must be certain about our abilities in that particular domain
  215. When are we likely to engage in upward social comparisons?
    • When the domain on which the other person is successful is relevant
    • Uncertainty about our own abilities
  216. What are the four strategies we can use to maintain a positive self concept according to the self evaluation maintenance model?
    • 1. Exaggerate the ability of successful target
    • 2. Change the target of comparison
    • 3. Distance the self from successful target
    • 4. Devalue the dimension of comparison
  217. True or false: The self concept is thought to be made up of one self schema
    False; made up of many self schemas
  218. What are the types of self proposed by Brewer and Gardner in 1996?
    • Individual self
    • Relational self
    • Collective self
  219. Who are the four researchers contributing to the social identity theory?
    Hogg and Abrams 1988 and Tafjel and Turner 1979
  220. What are personal identities?
    Those that reflect idiosyncratic aspects of the self (personality traits)
  221. What are social identities?
    Broader social groups to which we belong
  222. What does our sense of self at any given time depend upon?
    Which of our many personal or social identities is psychologically salient
  223. Who developed the self categorization theory?
    Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, and Wetherell, 1987
  224. What does the self categorization theory say about an individual’s social identity?
    When it becomes salient, their perceptions of themselves and others become depersonalized and they see themselves more in terms of the shared features that define group membership
  225. What principle do group members, under the self categorization theory, obey?
    Meta-contrast principle
  226. What researchers studied the effect of social identity on adherence to group norms?
    Jetten, Spears and Manstead in 1996
  227. What were Jetten et al. methods of research?
    • Participants social identity was made salient by being told they were being assigned to one of two groups, based on the technique they had used during an initial task
    • To increase identification, they then took part in what they believed was a group task (which actually had no other members)
    • They estimated the number of black squares appearing on a screen and were given false feedback about the estimates of three other group members
    • They were then asked to distribute money between members of their own group and members of another group.
  228. What were the results of the Jetten et al. study on group norms?
    Participants were strongly influenced by the norms of their own group, giving a greater proportion of money to members of their own group when their was a norm of discrimination but distributing money more equally between the two groups when there was a group norm of fairness but only when the norm of the other group was also fairness
  229. What happens to our level of self esteem over time?
    It varies depending on the context we find ourselves in
  230. What study did Robins and colleagues conduct in 2002?
    • A meta-analysis of 50 self esteem studies showing that over the course of people's lifespan general tendencies to have either high or low self esteem can vary
    • They found that self esteem among children aged between 6 and 11 was relatively unstable
    • Self esteem was most stable among people in their 20s and remained relatively stable until mid adulthood
    • By age 60, self esteem stability declines
  231. What did Joanne Wood and her colleagues discover?
    People with lower self esteem are less likely to make the effort to feel good than people with higher self esteem
  232. What did Wood, Heimpel, and Michela (2003) discover about self esteem?
    They recorded participants' memories of positive events and found that people with lower self esteem were more likely to dampen the good feelings they experienced by distracting themselves trying to make themselves feel less good and trying to calm themselves, than were people with higher self esteem
  233. In another study on self esteem, Wood, Heimpel, Michela and Brown (2002) discovered what?
    • Had participants who had reported a failure in their everyday life to list their immediate plans and reasons for those plans
    • Participants with lower self esteem were less likely to express goals to improve their mood
    • They found that having a goal to improve one's mood was associated with a greater improvement in mood the following day
  234. What do the findings from Wood et al. and Heimpel et al. studies indicate?
    • That people with lower self esteem make less effort to regulate their mood
    • They do not try to maintain a good mood after a positive life event
    • They are not motivated to elevate their mood after a negative life event
  235. Who argued that higher self esteem is associated with higher levels of aggression and violence under certain circumstances?
    Baumeister, Smart and Boden, 1996
  236. What type of self esteem do individuals have if they respond with aggression to an ego threat?
    Narcissism
  237. How is narcissistic self esteem laid out?
    Individuals have extremely high self esteem, believing they are special and superior to others, but their self esteem is very unstable
  238. What study did Bushman and Baumeister do in 1998?
    A study on the relationship between narcissism and the tendency to be aggressive
  239. What methods did Bushman and Baumeister use in their study and what were the results?
    • Told participants they were taking part in a study on how people respond to feedback from others and that they would be working with another participant
    • They wrote a one paragraph essay and it was taken away to the other (nonexistent) participant
    • Participants marked and gave feedback on the essay of the 'other participant' and were given feedback on their own essay
    • Praise condition:
    • Participants were given positive ratings and comments
    • Negative condition:
    • Participants were given negative ratings and comments
    • The participants were then told they would be in a competitive reaction time task and whoever failed the trial received a blast of noise
    • Results:
    • There was a positive relationship between narcissism and aggression but this relationship was particularly strong when there was an ego threat
  240. Why are we motivated to have an accurate self perception?
    To reduce uncertainty about our abilities or personal characteristics
  241. What are diagnostic tests, in relation to self motives?
    Tests which evaluate the performance of an individual and distinguish their performance from the performance of others, when evaluating the self
  242. What are the three self motives?
    • Self assessment
    • Self verification
    • Self enhancement
  243. Who performed a study to demonstrate the self verification motivation?
    Swann, Stein-Seroussi and Giesler, 1992
  244. What did Swann et al. find out in 1992?
    • They asked people who had either a positive or negative self concept whether they would prefer to interact with evaluators who had a favorable impression of them or unfavorable
    • Results:
    • They found that people with positive self concept were more likely to choose the evaluator who had a favorable impression, but it was the opposite for those with negative self concepts
  245. Morling and Epstein, 1997, found out what about people with lower self esteem and self motives?
    They seek a compromise between self enhancement and self verification by seeking out individuals who make them feel better about themselves without completely disconfirming their existing negative self concept
  246. How did Sedikides (1993) study self motives, and what were the results?
    • He pitted the three self motives against each other
    • Participants completed a self reflection task
    • Participants' strongest tendency was to ask themselves questions that focused on positive rather than negative aspects of self
    • Results:
    • Self enhancement appears to be the most powerful self motive
  247. How did Steele, 1975, demonstrate the self affirmation theory?
    • Study conducted among Mormon women
    • Self concept threat condition:
    • The researcher questioning the women commented that Mormons were typically uncooperative with community projects
    • Self concept irrelevant threat condition:
    • Researcher commented that Mormons were typically unconcerned with driver safety and care
    • Self concept affirmation condition:
    • Researcher commented that Mormons were typically cooperative with community projects
    • Two days later, the women received an "unrelated" phone call from a person in the community asking for help
    • Results:
    • 65% agreed in the self concept affirmation condition
    • 95% agreed in both threat conditions
    • Participants who felt threatened wanted to reaffirm a positive aspect of their self concept and did so by publicly demonstrating their community spirit
  248. In regards to the self-serving attribution bias, what researchers were involved in a study?
    Mischel, Ebbesen and Zeiss, 1976
  249. What were Mischel, Ebbesen and Zeiss' methods and results in their study?
    • Exposed participants to an equal amount of positive and negative information about their personality and then tested their memory of that information
    • Results:
    • Participants had a better memory for the positive information than for the negative information
  250. What research study suggests that people are more critical of information that criticizes them than information that praises them?
    Wyer and Frey, 1983
  251. What did Wyer and Frey discover about the self serving attribution bias?
    • They gave participants an intelligence test and then gave either positive or negative feedback
    • Participants then had the opportunity to read a report on the validity of intelligence tests which contained a mix of supportive and critical info
    • Results:
    • Participants who had been told they had performed poorly subsequently judged intelligence tests to be less valid than did participants who had received positive feedback
  252. What do Aron and colleagues name the research that shows that our self concept cognitively overlaps with the self concept of close friends and romantic partners?
    Including other in the self
  253. What are the benefits of including other in the self?
    The positive feelings and treatment we usually reserve for the self can then be extended to others
  254. What did Agnew et al. study in 1998?
    They found that greater inclusion of other in the self among dating couples was associated with greater satisfaction, commitment and investment in the relationship
  255. What did Wright, Aron, McLaughlin-Volpe and Ropp, 1997, find out about including the other in the self?
    They studied the extended contact effect and found that just knowing members of the ingroup who have friends in an outgroup reduces prejudice
  256. What methods and results were found in Wright and colleagues 1997 study?
    • They led participants to believe they had been assigned to one of two groups based on their performance on an initial task
    • Participants then observed an ingroup and an outgroup member interact on a problem solving task
    • The relationship between the individuals was either close, strangers of disliked acquaintances
    • Results:
    • The outgroup was evaluated more positively when the observed interaction was friendly than when it was neutral or hostile
  257. Who illustrated the dis-identification strategy in 1976?
    Robert Cialdini and colleagues
  258. What methods did Cialdini and colleagues use, and what were the results?
    • Investigated the behavior of fans of college American football teams
    • Students at seven universities were monitored during an intro psych class
    • The proportion of students in class wearing university apparel was recorded
    • The researchers considered whether the apparel differed depending on if their team had won
    • Results:
    • Students wore more apparel when their team had won that weekend
  259. What did Cialdini et al, call the phenomenon of wearing apparel after a winning weekend?
    Basking in reflected glory
  260. Snyder, Lassegard and Ford, 1986, discovered what about social strategies?
    • Compared to groups of college students who performed adequately on a group task, groups who failed on the task were more likely to distance themselves from other members of their group
    • They reported a desire to avoid the group
  261. What is the desire to avoid a group that failed?
    Cutting off reflected failure
  262. Who performed a study on the differences between individualist and collectivist cultures?
    Trafimow, Triandis and Goto, 1991
  263. How did Trafimow et al. study culture?
    • Had North American and Chinese participants write down 20 self descriptions
    • Results:
    • North American students wrote down a significantly greater proportion of individual self descriptions than Chinese students
  264. What other researchers studied culture in self and identity?
    Gardner, Gabriel and Lee, 1999
  265. What methods did Gardner et al. employ to study the relationship between self-construct and values?
    • Primed American students to temporaily have either a more individualist or more collectivist self concept by having them read a story
    • One story used independent pronouns and the other used interdependent pronouns
    • Participants then wrote down 20 self descriptions and completed a questionnaire about values that were important to them
    • Results:
    • Participants primed to hold a personal self concept wrote more individual self descriptions and more strongly endorsed individualist values than the students primed for collectivist self concepts
  266. People who are adept at dealing with both cultures are?
    Bicultural
  267. Hong, Morris, Chiu and Benet-Martinez (2000) studied what?
    • Biculturalism in Chinese Americans
    • Found that Chinese American bicultural individuals primed with Western or East Asian cues changed their behavior in line with the cued culture
  268. Buriel and colleagues (1998) found out what about holding two identities simultaneously?
    Bicultural individuals felt more at ease interacting with individuals from outside their ethnic minority, and had better problem solving strategies and interpersonal skills
  269. Schwarzer, Bowler and Rauch (1985) found out what about minority students?
    Minority students proficient at communicating with the majority culture had no only higher levels of self esteem but also reported having less experience with racial tension and interethnic conflicts
  270. Rogler, Cortes, and Malgady (1991) and Martinez (1987) discovered what about bicultural individuals who alternate between cultures?
    They have higher cognitive functioning, better mental health and higher self esteem
  271. Who was not so optimistic about biculturalism?
    • Lorenzo-Hernandez (1998) - not committed to their group of origin or dominant group
    • LaFromboise and colleagues (1993) - to successfully alternate, they must hold positive attitudes toward both cultures and be able to communicate effectively
  272. What is the self?
    A symbolic construct
  273. What does the self reflect?
    • Consciousness of our own identity
    • Awareness that we exist as an individual, separate from other individuals
  274. What is self awareness?
    A psychological state in which people are aware of their traits, feelings and behaviors
  275. Lewis and Brooks performed their study in what year?
    1978
  276. What was Lewis and Brooks (1978) study?
    • Put a spot of rouge on the nose of babies and then put them in front of a mirror
    • Around 18 months, children recognized that the reflections was themselves
  277. Where do scientists believe self awareness exists in the brain?
    Prefrontal cortex in the anterior cingulate
  278. What group of scientists researched biological correlates of self-perceptions and perspective taking?
    Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae (2005)
  279. What are the two differences in temporary self awareness?
    Private and public
  280. What are some factors of private self awareness, discovered through different studies?
    • Intensified emotional response
    • Report with greater accuracy
    • More likely to adhere to personal standards of behavior
  281. What are some factors of public self awareness?
    • Evaluation apprehension
    • Adherence to social standards of behavior
  282. What is a chronic differences in self awareness?
    Having a self-conscious personality trait or not
  283. If an individual is high in private self-consciousness, do they experience lowered or heightened self awareness?
    Heightened
  284. If an individual is high in public self-consciousness how do they feel about others around them?
    They are concerned with how they are perceived by others
  285. What year did Scheier and Carver perform their self awareness study?
    1977
  286. What study did Scheier and Carver (1977) perform?
    • Private self awareness study
    • Participants read aloud positive or negative statements
    • Participants who looked in the mirror during this task were more privately self aware and had more extreme emotional responses than those who did not look in a mirror
  287. How do individuals organize self knowledge?
    With self schemas
  288. What are self schemas?
    How we expect ourselves to think, feel and behave in a particular situation
  289. When do self schemas become active?
    In relevant situations
  290. What information do self schemas provide us in a situation?
    How we should respond, based on our beliefs of who we are
  291. What are self-schematic traits?
    Traits important to our self concept
  292. What are somewhat schematic traits?
    Traits that describe our self to some extent
  293. What are a-schematic traits?
    Traits that do not describe our perception of our self
  294. What are the theories of self-comparison?
    • Self Regulation Theory
    • Self Discrepancy Theory
  295. What are the theories of individual comparison?
    • Social Comparison Theory
    • Self Evaluation Maintenance Model
  296. What is the theory of group comparison?
    Social Identity Approach
  297. Who developed the control theory of self regulation (self regulation theory)?
    Carver and Scheier, 1981
  298. What is the self regulation theory?
    We examine the self to assess whether we are meeting our personal goals
  299. What is a good comparison in science to the self regulation theory?
    • The scientific method - start with a self schema, test it, evaluate it, if it passes we move on, but if it doesn't we retest it
    • Test-Operate-Test-Exit
  300. Who developed the self discrepancy theory?
    Higgins, 1987
  301. What is the self discrepancy theory?
    People are motivated to ensure that their actual self matches their ideal and ought self
  302. Who developed the social comparison theory?
    Festinger, 1954
  303. What is the social comparison theory?
    We learn how to define the self by comparing ourselves to others through two different comparisons (upward and downward)
  304. What are the two different comparisons employed in the social comparison theory?
    Upward and downward
  305. Who developed the self evaluation maintenance model?
    Tesser, 1988
  306. What is the self-evaluation maintenance model?
    When someone is more successful than us, it can have a negative effect on our self esteem, so we use self reflection and upward social comparisons to deal with it
  307. What are the four levels of upward social comparison?
    • 1. exaggerate the ability of successful target
    • 2. change the target of comparison
    • 3. distance the self from successful target
    • 4. devalue the dimension of comparison
  308. "They're just a genius so how can you compare them to normal people?" This is an example of what upward social comparison technique?
    Exaggerating the ability of the successful target
  309. "Yeah, anyway, forget about her, I did better than Briony, Phillip, and Tasmin" This is an example of what upward social comparison technique?
    Changing the target of comparison
  310. "She's a bit weird; we've got nothing in common at all! I think I'm going to avoid sitting near her in class..." This is an example of what type of upward social comparison?
    Distancing the self from the successful target
  311. "She may get better grades than me, but I have a much better social life. Being popular is much more important!" This is an example of what type of upward social comparison?
    Devaluing the dimension of comparison
  312. Tajfel and Turner developed what theory and in what year?
    Social identity approach in 1979
  313. What are the two important aspects of self in the social identity approach?
    • Personal identity
    • Social identity
  314. Is the social identity approach applicable in every context, or is it context dependent?
    Context dependent
  315. What is the evaluative component of the self concept?
    Self esteem
  316. What is self esteem?
    A person's subjective appraisal of him/herself as intrinsically positive or negative to some degree
  317. Who's definition of self esteem is used in the book?
    Sedikides and Gregg, 2003
  318. Depending on the context we find ourselves in, what happens to our self esteem levels?
    They vary from time to time
  319. Are differences in self esteem acute, chronic or both?
    Both
  320. What are consequences of low self esteem?
    • Disability to adequately regulate mood
    • Narcissism
  321. Wood et al. (2003) found out what about people with low self esteem?
    They dampen positive feelings
  322. Heimpel et al. (2002) found out what about people with low self esteem?
    Following failure, the make fewer goals and plans to improve their mood
  323. What is narcissism?
    • Extremely high self esteem
    • Very unstable/fragile self esteem
    • Reliant on validation from others
  324. What are positive characteristics of narcissism?
    Initially likeable, extraverted, unlikely to suffer from depression and perform well in public
  325. What are negative characteristics of narcissism?
    Crave attention, overconfident, lack empathy
  326. Who defined the positive and negative characteristics of narcissism?
    Young and Pinksy in 2006
  327. What are the self motives?
    • Self assessment
    • Self verification
    • Self enhancement
  328. Which self motivation is most important to us?
    Self enhancement
  329. Who said self enhancement was the most important self motivation?
    Sedikides, 1993
  330. Who developed the self affirmation theory?
    Steele, 1975
  331. Mischel et al., 1975 developed what theory?
    Self serving attribution bias
  332. What is the self affirmation theory?
    We respond to threatened self esteem by publicly affirming positive aspects of the self
  333. What is the self serving attribution bias?
    • Successes are attributed to internal characteristics
    • Failures are attributed to external characteristics
    • We have a memory for self enhancing information
  334. What are different strategies to enhance the social self?
    • Deriving a positive self image from their group memberships
    • Holding a positive collective identity in a group
    • Actions of low status group members to enhance themselves
  335. What are strategies employed by low status group members to enhance their social self?
    • Join a higher status group
    • Social change strategies
    • Social creativity strategies
    • Dis-identification
  336. What are cultural differences in self and identity?
    Individualistic vs Collectivist
  337. Are collectivist mindsets of the self still individual perceptions?
    Yes, they are still individual perceptions dwelling in the mind
  338. What is biculturalism?
    Individuals who simultaneously hold two cultural identities, their original and the identity of their host society
  339. What is the alternation model used in biculturalism?
    • Individuals alter their cultural orientation depending on the situation (which culture they are immersed in at the time)
    • Possible to have a sense of belonging in two cultures
  340. Social cognition
    the way in which perceivers encode, process, remember and use information in social contexts in order to make sense of other people's behavior
  341. Social context
    a real or imagined scenario including reference to self or others
  342. Social inference
    the way in which we categorize others and use cognitive shortcuts to clarify and understand all of the information bombarding our senses
  343. Two primary needs people are motivated by, according to Heider
    • 1. the need to form a coherent view of the world
    • 2. the need to gain control over the environment
  344. Naive scientists
    people rationally and logically test out hypotheses about the behavior of others because of a desire for consistency and stability
  345. Attribution theory
    Heider proposed that we have a basic need to attribute causality as this ascribes meaning to our social world, making it more clear, definable and predictable
  346. Locus of causality
    the dimension that describes whether people make internal or external attributions
  347. Internal attribution (person attribution)
    an explanation that locates the cause as being internal to the person, such as personality, mood, abilities, attitudes, and effort
  348. External attribution (situation attribution)
    an explanation that locates the cause as being external to the person, such as the actions of others, the nature of the situation, social pressures or luck
  349. Stability
    a dimension that describes whether the causes of a behavior or event are perceived to be relatively stable and permanent or temporary and fluctuating
  350. Controllability
    a dimension that describes whether the causes of a behavior or event were perceived to be influenced by other or whether they were perceived to have occurred at random
  351. Social desirability
    information about whether the behavior observed is consistent with, or counter to, social norms - the more consistent the behavior is with social norms, the more socially desirable that behavior is seen as being
  352. Choice (chosen)
    internal attributions are more likely to be made when the person being observed has freely chosen to behave in a particular way
  353. Non-common effects
    when a behavior has unique consequences, rather than range of possible other consequences, an internal attribution is more likely to be made
  354. Consensus information
    information about the extent to which other people in the scene react in the same way as the target person
  355. Consistency information
    information about the extent to which the target person reacts int he same way on different occasions
  356. Distinctiveness information
    information about the extent to which the target person reacts in the same way in other social contexts
  357. Attributional biases
    describe the tendency in particular contexts to make one type of attribution over another
  358. Perceptual salience
    tendency to categorize on the basis of the features that are the most salient in a particular situation - fundamental attribution error may be explained by the fact that the person being observed is the most perceptually salient aspect of the situation
  359. Actor-observer effect
    tendency to attribute other people's behavior to internal causes and our own behaviors to external causes
  360. Self-serving attribution bias
    we are more likely to make internal attributions for our successes and external attribution for failures
  361. Cognitive misers
    theory that, far from being naive scientists, we are reluctant to expend cognitive resources and look for an opportunity to avoid engaging in effortful thought
  362. Heuristics
    time-saving mental short-cuts that reduce complex judgements to simple rules of thumb
  363. Representative heuristic
    tendency to allocate a set of attributes to someone if they match the prototype of a given category
  364. Social categorization
    the way in which we organize our social world by putting people into groupings - males and females, old and young, black and white
  365. Base rate fallacy
    tendency to ignore statistical information in favor of representativeness information
  366. Availability heuristic
    tendency to judge the frequency of an event in terms of how easy it is to bring to mind examples of that particular event; we use availability as a cognitive short-cut; the easier it is for something to come to mind, the more likely it is that it will affect our behavior
  367. Accessibility
    extent to which a concept is readily brought to mind
  368. False consensus effect
    robust bias we have to overestimate how common one's own opinion is in the general population
  369. Anchoring heuristic
    tendency to be biased toward the starting value, or anchor, in making quantitative judgements
  370. Motivated tacticians
    the idea that people are neither cognitive misers nor naive scientists; instead, they are strategic in their allocation of cognitive resources, deciding whether to be a cognitive miser or a naive scientist depending on the situation
  371. Time (motivated tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • people are more likely to be a cognitive miser when they are short of time; in addition, the longer the time lag between assessing a person's attitude and behavior toward a stimulus, the less likely it is that attitude and behavior will correspond with one another
  372. Cognitive load (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • to be a naive scientist, one must think, analyze and contemplate; people are therefore more likely to be a cognitive miser when they have lots on their mind and do not have the cognitive resources available to think in depth about an issue
  373. Importance (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • if a decision we have to make is important to us, then we are much less likely to use a heuristic and much more likely to be a naive scientist
  374. Information (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • we can only act as naive scientists if we have all the information we need at hand; where there is lack of information, we are more likely to rely on heuristics to make a decision; possessing more information about an attitude object leads to greater attitude strength and greater correspondence between attitude and behavior
  375. Categorization
    • - the process of understanding what something is by knowing what others things is is equivalent to, and what other things it is different from
    • - a way of classifying some collection of objects, events, opinions, attitudes, concepts or people
    • - labeling
    • - comparing
  376. Prototype
    the most representative or typical object, person, or characteristic in a particular category
  377. Stereotype
    prototype of a social category
  378. Illusory correlation
    belief that two variables are associated with one another when there is little or no actual association
  379. Shared distinctiveness
    term that describes when two things are both infrequent and therefore distinctive, which tends to lead to an illusory correlation
  380. Heterogeneous (in categories)
    a category that is perceived to be made up of many different sorts of people
  381. Homogeneous (in categories)
    a category that is perceived to be made up of only a few types of people who are all very similar to one another
  382. Outgroup homogeneity effect
    the general tendency that people have to perceive outgroup members to be more homogeneous than ingroup members
  383. Familiar
    the outgroup homogeneity effect may be explained by the fact that we are more familiar with our own group, holding a more detailed and varied impression of it
  384. Temporal primacy
    we tend to categorize on the basis of the features of a category that we encounter first
  385. Perceptual salience
    we tend to categorize on the basis of the features that are the most salient in a particular situation; the fundamental attribution error may be explained by the fact that the person being observed is the most perceptually salient aspect of the situation
  386. Chronic accessibility
    some categories, such as age, gender, and race, are used so frequently that they become chronically accessible, and are automatically applied to people in most situations
  387. Stereotype consistent
    categorization heightens accessibility of info that is consistent with the category stereotype
  388. Stereotype inconsistent
    information that goes against our normal stereotypical expectation about a member of a particular group; may be better remembered than stereotype consistent info because it is attention getting, but only if people have enough cognitive resources available to process it
  389. Subtype
    even is stereotype inconsistent information is remembered, it may often be discounted as an 'exception to the rule' where the stereotype is concerned; subtyping often preserves and perpetuates the overall stereotype as it negates the impact of disconfirming information
  390. Behavioral assimilation
    phenomenon whereby when people think about a particular category they can unconsciously begin to act in line with the stereotype associated with that category (elderly = slow)
  391. Subliminal priming
    unconscious activation of knowledge structures, such as traits or stereotypes, which can then have an unintended influence on an individual's subsequent behavior
  392. Stereotype threat
    when a negative stereotype about the group to which we belong is made salient, we tend to show impaired performance on dimensions related to that stereotype
  393. Dual process theory
    theory that argues when forming impressions of others, people take either a heuristic or a systematic approach
  394. Continuum model
    Fiske and Neuberg argue that there is a continuum from category-based (heuristic) processing where people are seen as individuals to attribute based (systematic) processing where people are seen as representative of a group
  395. Individuation
    seeing a person as an idiosyncratic individual with unique characteristics rather than as an interchangeable group member
  396. Decategorization
    process by which people switch from forming impressions based on categories to forming impressions based on individual characteristics
  397. Social cognition
    the way in which perceivers encode, process, remember and use information in social contexts in order to make sense of other people's behavior
  398. Social context
    a real or imagined scenario including reference to self or others
  399. Social inference
    the way in which we categorize others and use cognitive shortcuts to clarify and understand all of the information bombarding our senses
  400. Two primary needs people are motivated by, according to Heider
    • 1. the need to form a coherent view of the world
    • 2. the need to gain control over the environment
  401. Naive scientists
    people rationally and logically test out hypotheses about the behavior of others because of a desire for consistency and stability
  402. Cognitive misers
    theory that, far from being naive scientists, we are reluctant to expend cognitive resources and look for an opportunity to avoid engaging in effortful thought
  403. Heuristics
    time-saving mental short-cuts that reduce complex judgements to simple rules of thumb
  404. Representative heuristic
    • tendency to allocate a set of attributes to someone if they match the prototype of a given category
    • quick and easy way of putting people into categoires
  405. Social categorization
    the way in which we organize our social world by putting people into groupings - males and females, old and young, black and white
  406. Base rate fallacy
    • tendency to ignore statistical information in favor of representativeness information
    • fallacy of the representative heuristic
  407. Availability heuristic
    tendency to judge the frequency of an event in terms of how easy it is to bring to mind examples of that particular event; we use availability as a cognitive short-cut; the easier it is for something to come to mind, the more likely it is that it will affect our behavior
  408. Accessibility
    extent to which a concept is readily brought to mind
  409. False consensus effect
    • robust bias we have to overestimate how common one's own opinion is in the general population
    • tendency to exaggerate how common one's own opinions are in the general population
  410. Who said people are flexible social thinkers who choose between multiple cognitive strategies based on their current goals, motives and needs?
    Kruglanski, 1996
  411. Motivated tacticians
    • the idea that people are neither cognitive misers nor naive scientists; instead, they are strategic in their allocation of cognitive resources, deciding whether to be a cognitive miser or a naive scientist depending on the situation
    • People are flexible social thinkers who choose between multiple cognitive strategies based on their current goals, motives, and needs
  412. Who developed the outline determining whether people adopt systematic or heuristic processing?
    Macrae, Hewstone and Griffiths, 1993
  413. Time (motivated tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • people are more likely to be a cognitive miser when they are short of time; in addition, the longer the time lag between assessing a person's attitude and behavior toward a stimulus, the less likely it is that attitude and behavior will correspond with one another
  414. Cognitive load (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • to be a naive scientist, one must think, analyze and contemplate; people are therefore more likely to be a cognitive miser when they have lots on their mind and do not have the cognitive resources available to think in depth about an issue
  415. Importance (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • if a decision we have to make is important to us, then we are much less likely to use a heuristic and much more likely to be a naive scientist
  416. Information (motivation tactician)
    • In heuristic versus systematic processing
    • we can only act as naive scientists if we have all the information we need at hand; where there is lack of information, we are more likely to rely on heuristics to make a decision; possessing more information about an attitude object leads to greater attitude strength and greater correspondence between attitude and behavior
  417. Categorization
    • - the process of understanding what something is by knowing what others things is is equivalent to, and what other things it is different from
    • - a way of classifying some collection of objects, events, opinions, attitudes, concepts or people
    • - labeling
    • - comparing
  418. Prototype
    the most representative or typical object, person, or characteristic in a particular category
  419. Stereotype
    prototype of a social category
  420. Illusory correlation
    belief that two variables are associated with one another when there is little or no actual association
  421. Shared distinctiveness
    term that describes when two things are both infrequent and therefore distinctive, which tends to lead to an illusory correlation
  422. Heterogeneous (in categories)
    a category that is perceived to be made up of many different sorts of people
  423. Homogeneous (in categories)
    a category that is perceived to be made up of only a few types of people who are all very similar to one another
  424. Outgroup homogeneity effect
    the general tendency that people have to perceive outgroup members to be more homogeneous than ingroup members
  425. Familiar
    the outgroup homogeneity effect may be explained by the fact that we are more familiar with our own group, holding a more detailed and varied impression of it
  426. Perceptual salience
    we tend to categorize on the basis of the features that are the most salient in a particular situation; the fundamental attribution error may be explained by the fact that the person being observed is the most perceptually salient aspect of the situation
  427. Chronic accessibility
    some categories, such as age, gender, and race, are used so frequently that they become chronically accessible, and are automatically applied to people in most situations
  428. Stereotype consistent
    categorization heightens accessibility of info that is consistent with the category stereotype
  429. Stereotype inconsistent
    • information that goes against our normal stereotypical expectation about a member of a particular group; may be better remembered than stereotype consistent info because it is attention getting, but only if people have enough cognitive resources available to process it
    • Salient and attention-grabbing
  430. Subtype
    even if stereotype inconsistent information is remembered, it may often be discounted as an 'exception to the rule' where the stereotype is concerned; subtyping often preserves and perpetuates the overall stereotype as it negates the impact of disconfirming information
  431. Behavioral assimilation
    phenomenon whereby when people think about a particular category they can unconsciously begin to act in line with the stereotype associated with that category (elderly = slow)
  432. Subliminal priming
    unconscious activation of knowledge structures, such as traits or stereotypes, which can then have an unintended influence on an individual's subsequent behavior
  433. Stereotype threat
    when a negative stereotype about the group to which we belong is made salient, we tend to show impaired performance on dimensions related to that stereotype
  434. Dual process theory
    theory that argues when forming impressions of others, people take either a heuristic or a systematic approach
  435. Continuum model
    • Fiske and Neuberg argue that there is a continuum from category-based (heuristic) processing where people are seen as individuals to attribute based (systematic) processing where people are seen as representative of a group
    • They say people begin the process of impression formation by adopting a cognitive miser mode of processing, unless they find there is not a good fit - then they shift to naive scientist mode
  436. Individuation
    seeing a person as an idiosyncratic individual with unique characteristics rather than as an interchangeable group member
  437. Decategorization
    process by which people switch from forming impressions based on categories to forming impressions based on individual characteristics
  438. What is social cognition?
    Describes the way people encode, process, remember, and use information in social contexts in order to make sense of other’s behavior
  439. What is systematic versus heuristic processing?
    • 1. Time
    • 2. Cognitive overload
    • 3. Importance
    • 4. Information
  440. Two ways we use systematic versus heuristic processing
    • Naïve scientist
    • Cognitive miser
  441. What is a cognitive miser?
    Processing resources are valuable so we engage in time-saving mental shortcuts when trying to understand the world
  442. Who developed the definition of a cognitive miser?
    Fiske and Taylor, 1991
  443. Who developed the concept of the naïve scientist?
    Heider
  444. Types of heuristics (4)
    • Representativeness
    • Availability
    • Anchoring
    • False consensus effect
  445. What are heuristics?
    • Time-saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgments to simple rules of thumb
    • Quick and easy, but can result in biased information processing
  446. What are the two most commonly used heuristics?
    • Representativeness
    • Availability
  447. Who made definitions for heuristics?
    • Tversky and Kahneman, 1974
    • Ajzen, 1996
  448. What is the representativeness heuristic?
    Tendency to judge the category membership of people based on how closely they match the prototypical member of that category
  449. Who developed the representativeness heuristic?
    Kahneman and Tversky, 1973
  450. What is the easy way to explain the representativeness heuristic?
    Quick and easy way of putting people into categories
  451. What is the base rate fallacy?
    • The representativeness heuristic is prone to error
    • It has a tendency to ignore statistical information in favor of representativeness information
  452. What is the availability heuristic?
    Tendency to judge the frequency or probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event
  453. Who developed the availability heuristic?
    Tversky and Kaneman, 1973
  454. What concept is the availability heuristic related to?
    Concept of accessibility
  455. What study did Schwarz and colleagues do in 1991?
    • Methods
    • Had participants recall 12 or 6 examples of assertive/unassertive behavior, then rate themselves as assertive or unassertive
    • Results
    • Participants recalled 6 examples of their assertive (or unassertive) behavior subsequently rated themselves as more assertive (or unassertive) than those who had recalled 12 examples
    • People attend to the difficulty of retrieving instances of certain behaviors and not just the content – when recalling 12, examples became less available to them so they didn’t believe they were assertive/unassertive
  456. ****Who developed the false consensus effect?
    Gross and Miller, 1997
  457. Ross, Greene and House performed what study in 1977?
    • The false consensus effect
    • Methods
    • “Would you walk around campus for thirty minutes wearing a large sandwich board saying EAT AT JOE’S”
    • Students estimated that the number of students who would make the same choice as them
    • Results
    • Whatever choice the participant made, they estimated that the majority of other people would make the same choice
  458. What is the anchoring heuristic?
    Anchoring is the tendency to be biased toward the starting value or anchor in making quantitative judgments
  459. Who defined anchoring?
    Wyer, 1976
  460. What did Plous do in 1989?
    • The anchoring heuristic
    • Methods:
    • Survey during the Cold War
    • Asked either:
    • Is there a greater than 1% chance of nuclear war occurring soon?
    • Is there less than a 90% chance of a nuclear war occurring soon?
    • Results:
    • Participants who received the 1% question anchor estimated a 10% chance of nuclear war, while those who received the 90% anchor estimated a 25% chance
  461. What did Greenberg et al find in 1986 that was similar to Plous' findings on the anchoring heuristic?
    In a mock jury study, participants asked to consider first a harsh verdict were subsequently harsher in their final decision than participants asked to first consider a lenient verdict
  462. What do studies on the anchoring heuristic generally tell us about judgments?
    Our judgments on a range of issues are significantly influenced by the point at which we start our deliberations
  463. What types of cognitive strategies could a person employ as a motivated tactician?
    • Speed/ease
    • Accuracy/logic
  464. What factors determine whether we use heuristic vs systematic strategies?
    Time constraints, cognitive overload, low importance, little information regarding issue = heuristic
  465. After the perceiver decides between systematic vs heuristic processing what happens?
    • In systematic processing the perceiver acts like a naïve scientist, using rational, logical analysis of available information – higher accuracy
    • In heuristic processing the perceiver acts like a cognitive miser making quick and easy analyses – lower accuracy
  466. Is heuristic processing or systematic processing more accurate?
    Systematic
  467. ***Who defined the motivated tactician theory?
    Kruglanski, 1996
  468. What is categorization?
    • Process of understanding what something is by knowing what other things it is equivalent to, and what other things it is different from
    • Way of classifying some collection of objects, events, opinions, attitudes, concepts or people
  469. What is the classical view of social categorization?
    Bruner, Goodnow, and Austin (1956) – category membership determined via defined features, if one feature was missing, then it was something else
  470. What is the problem with the classical view of social categorization?
    Many categories have uncertain or “fuzzy” boundaries – Rosch, 1978
  471. What is the newer view on social categorization?
    • Not all or nothing
    • Members are more or less typical of a category
    • Typicality is variable
  472. What are prototypes?
    Most representative members of a category
  473. What happens to categorization of less typical members of a category?
    May be slower/error-full because they are less available
  474. How are categories defined (in general)?
    By prototypes
  475. When we are dealing with social categories, we are dealing with?
    Stereotypes
  476. Why do we come to perceive some characteristics as typical of certain categories?
    • Social learning and exposure
    • Illusionary correlations
  477. What can social learning and exposure lead to?
    Stereotypes
  478. What are stereotypes?
    Prototypes that are social categories
  479. What is an illusionary correlation?
    Two variables are associated with one another when there is little or no actual association
  480. What can illusionary correlations lead to?
    Negative stereotypes associated with minority groups
  481. What study did Hamilton and Gifford perform in 1976?
    • Illusory correlations
    • Methods:
    • Asked participants to read info about people from two made-up groups
    • Twice as much info was provided about group A (majority) than group B (minority)
    • Twice as much of the info provided for both groups involved desirable behaviors rather than undesirable
    • Results:
    • More of the undesirable negative behaviors were attributed to group B, than group A
    • Participants believed that negative behaviors were more characteristic of the smaller group than the bigger group
    • Explained this through shared distinctiveness
  482. How are categories structured?
    • Heterogeneous
    • Homogenous
  483. What is a heterogeneous category?
    Perceived to be made up of many sorts of people
  484. What is a homogenous category?
    Perceived to made up of only a few types of people who are all very similar to each group
  485. What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
    The general tendency to perceive outgroup members to be more homogenous than ingroup members
  486. What study did Shapiro and Penrod perform in 1986?
    • Outgroup homogeneity effect
    • Found that white people found it difficult to tell Asian faces apart, and Asian people found it difficult to tell white faces apart
  487. What study did Park and Rothbart (1982) perform?
    • The outgroup homogeneity effect in how people structure their memory
    • People remember more about someone they encounter from their own group than another group
  488. What are the two main reasons we categorize?
    • Saves us time and cognitive processing
    • Categorization provides meaning
  489. How does categorizing save time and cognitive processing?
    Frees up cognitive resources for other tasks
  490. How does categorization provide meaning?
    • Reduces uncertainty
    • Provides prescriptive norms for understanding ourselves in relation to others
  491. When do we categorize? (3)
    • Temporal primacy
    • Perceptual salience
    • Chronic accessibility
  492. What is temporal primacy?
    We categorize on the basis of the features we encounter first
  493. What are consequences of categorization?
    • Heightened accessibility of stereotype consistent information
    • Categorization and prejudice
  494. How does categorization lend to heightened accessibility of stereotype consistent information?
    Selective encoding of subsequently acquired target information
  495. How does categorization lead to prejudice?
    People recall more positive than negative information about someone from their own group, but more negative than positive information about someone in another group
  496. Categorization and unconscious behavior
    When people think about categories, they can unconsciously begin to act in line with the stereotype associated with those categories
  497. Behavioral assimilation
    When people think about categories, they can unconsciously begin to act in line with the stereotype associated with those categories
  498. What defines typicality in categorization?
    Prototypes
  499. What were the methods and results of Bargh, Chen and Burrows study in 1996?
    • Investigated whether priming participants with a social category would lead them to behave in line with the stereotypical traits associated with that category
    • Methods:
    • Participants were primed with words related to the elderly stereotype vs neutral words using a "scrambled sentence task"
    • They were then told the experiment was finished
    • The experimenters then timed/observed the participants walking down the hall
    • Results:
    • Participants who had been primed with the elderly stereotype walked significantly slower from the experimental norm
    • The participants behaviorally assimilated to the stereotype they were primed for
  500. What happens a stereotype threat is felt?
    The individuals tend to show impaired performance on dimensions related to that stereotype
  501. What is self-efficacy?
    Your estimation of how effective you are
  502. What study did E.G. Schmader perform in 2002 on stereotype threats?
    • Stereotype threat and gender identification
    • Methods:
    • Female and male participants indicated how important their gender identity was to them at the beginning of the semester
    • Two conditions - gender identity relevant condition and gender identity irrelevant
    • Participants then took a difficult math test
    • Results:
    • In the gender identity relevant condition, women performed significantly worse than men if they HIGHLY identified with their gender group, proving the stereotype threat effect
  503. Dual process theory in social cognition
    Either a heuristic versus systematic approach is used when forming impressions of others
  504. In the dual process theory, heuristic and systematic approaches are comparable to what?
    Cognitive miser and naive scientists
  505. How is impression formation in the dual process theory based on?
    • Categorization (heuristic)
    • Individuation (systematic)
  506. What is decategorization in the dual process theory in social cognition?
    A switch from using categorization to individuation (target primarily defined as individual rather than group member)
  507. Do we want people to use categorization or individuation when forming impressions of others?
    Individuation because it defines individually instead of in groups
  508. Cohen performed what study in 1981 about consequences of categorization?
    • Methods:
    • Showed participants a videotape of a woman having a birthday dinner
    • They were told she was a waitress or a librarian
    • Results:
    • Participants told she was a waitress remembered her drinking beer
    • Participants told she was a librarian remembered her wearing glasses
    • This illustrates how stereotypes can influence our attention and what we remember from any social scene
  509. Gaertner and McLauglin (1983) found what about categorization and prejudice?
    Found that white participants were faster to name positive words after they had seen the racial category 'white' compared to 'black'
  510. Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg performed what study in 1998?
    • On behavioral assimilation
    • Found that participants who imagined a typical professor subsequently outperformed those who imagined a typical secretary, on a general knowledge task
    • Although priming did not change the participants' actual intelligence, it did temporarily induce participants to behave differently in their reaction to the multiple choice task
  511. What did Steele and Aronson find out about stereotype threats in 1995?
    Found that African-Americans underperformed on a test when they were told it was indicative of intelligence, but they also found simply asking African-Americans to state their race before taking a test reduced the students' subsequent performance
  512. Attitude
    • set of beliefs that we hold in relation to an attitude object, where an attitude object is a person, thing, event or issue
    • a positive or negative evaluation of an object
  513. Four ways in which attitudes can form
    • mere exposure
    • associative learning
    • self-perception
    • functional reasons
  514. Mere exposure effect
    • the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more positive our attitude is toward it
    • tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them
  515. True or false: Action/interaction is not required in the mere exposure effect
    True
  516. What experiment did Zajonc perform in 1968?
    • Participants were told they were in an experiment to determine how people learn a foreign language, but it was actually to test the mere exposure effect
    • Methods:
    • 10 Chinese-like characters on the computer screen for 2 seconds each, some were shown a lot, some just once
    • The second part of the test, the participants were told the characters were adjectives and they were asked to decide if they were positive or negative
    • Results:
    • Participants thought the characters they saw more often were positive
    • The more exposure they had to the character, the more positive they felt it was
    • The more we see something, the more we like it
  517. Who performed a study similar to Zajonc's on the mere exposure effect?
    Mita, Dermer and Knight (1977)
  518. What was Mita et. al's study in 1977?
    • On the mere exposure effect
    • Methods:
    • Took a picture of the participants and showed them the picture and the mirror image of the picture
    • Also showed both pictures to friends of the participants
    • Results:
    • Participants preferred the mirror image picture because it's what they saw when they looked in the mirror, while the friend's preferred the original picture because it's what they see when they look at their friend
    • Preference was higher for the perspective that was most commonly experienced by the person rating the photo
  519. Who performed a study on the mere exposure effect and music preference?
    Brickman, Redfield, Harrison, and Crandall (1972)
  520. What were the methods and results of the study Brickman et. al performed in 1972?
    • Study on the mere exposure effect
    • Methods:
    • Undergraduate students listened to 90 second segments of 5 rock and roll songs
    • They either listened to each song 0, 1, 2, 5 or 10 times
    • At the end, they listened to a 3-5 second segment from the chorus of each song and were asked to rate how much they liked the song
    • Results:
    • They found a DECREASE in liking with increased exposure
    • Participants began with a report of liking rock and roll but at the end of the study they said they didn't like the antiquated style of the music in this experiment
    • Brickman et al performed another study in which participants were exposed to abstract paintings they had previously rated very positively, very negatively or neutrally. People with initially neutral impressions liked the paintings more with repeated exposure as did people with initially positive impressions. However, participants with an initially negative attitude liked the paintings less
    • The effectiveness of mere exposure for improving attitudes depends on the initial attitude being neutral or positive
  521. What does the mere exposure effect assume about stimuli?
    That they are novel and neutral
  522. Classical conditioning
    • type of associative learning in which two things become strongly connected because we are repeatedly exposed to them
    • When a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes an emotional response - pairing is required
  523. What study used classical conditioning in 1958?
    • Staats and Staats
    • Methods:
    • Paired "Dutch" with negative words and "Swedish" with positive and vice-versa
    • Results:
    • Repeated associations of the positive words with Dutch or Swedish, led to a more positive evaluation of the group - associative learning
  524. What study used pairing of aversive stimuli with nonsense words and what were the results?
    • Cacioppo et al
    • Classical conditioning experiment in which they found pairing aversive stimuli with nonsense words created more of a negative association with those words
    • This suggests that associative learning may be a more powerful determinant of attitude formation when little knowledge is available about the attitude object
  525. Operant conditioning
    • type of associative learning in which an association forms between a behavior and a consequence
    • response-stimulus conditioning (Faraday)
    • Behavior is strengthened following rewards and weakened following punishment
    • Participants must carry out some action that is either rewarded or punished
  526. Self-perception theory
    • theory proposing that we form attitudes through the observation of our own behavior
    • Behaviors can cause attitudes
    • We attribute our own behavior as being indicative (caused by) certain attitudes but mainly if little knowledge is available about the issue at hand
  527. Chaiken and Baldwin (1981)
    • Study on self-perception theory
    • Methods:
    • Participants were pre-screened to assess their attitude toward pro-environment practices - self-perception of their attitude
    • Participants then were asked either pro- or anti-environmental questions about their behaviors
    • Then they were asked to indicate their own attitude toward environmental practices
    • Results:
    • Participants induced to report pro behaviors were more likely to rate themselves as pro-environment and the same happened for anti, but only when they had a weak prior attitude
    • If participants had a strong prior attitude, there was no effect on their final reported attitude
  528. Facial feedback hypothesis
    • people's own facial expression provides a cue to their attitudes; people who are made to smile form a more positive attitude than people made to frown
    • self-perception theory
  529. Who tested the facial feedback hypothesis and what were their methods and results?
    • Strack, Martin and Stepper (1988)
    • Methods:
    • Had participants hold a pen between their teeth or between their lips while evaluating a series of humorous cartoon images
    • They were asked to form an attitude on how amusing the cartoons were
    • Results:
    • Participants holding the pen between their teeth evaluated the cartoons as more humorous because their facial expression made them feel like they were smiling
    • Facial 'behaviors' can inform subsequent attitudes
  530. Vascular theory of emotion
    • Zajonc, 1993
    • alternative explanation offered for the facial feedback hypothesis
    • smiling increases blood flow to the brain lowering brain temp, creating a positive mood, and frowning decreases blood flow to the brain increasing brain temp and creating a negative mood
  531. What did Zajonc et al find in 1989 that supported the vascular theory of emotion?
    Making vowel sounds that mimicked frowning lowered forehead temperature and mood, whereas vowel sounds that mimicked smiling decreased forehead temperature and elevated mood
  532. Functional approach
    attitudes are formed/changed based on the degree to which they satisfy an individual's psychological needs
  533. How is the functional approach to attitude formation different from exposure, learning and self-perception approaches?
    It is an active attitude theory, rather than passive
  534. The four basic psychological needs that can influence attitude formation
    • Utilitarian
    • Knowledge
    • Ego-defensive
    • Value-expression
  535. Utilitarian function
    • We sometimes hold a particular attitude because it is useful for us to do so
    • Example: Liking your nursing degree because it will help you get a job in the future
    • At times our public attitude may be different from our private attitude
  536. Knowledge function
    • holding particular attitudes helps us to organize and simplify our social world
    • our attitudes enable us to predict behavior of others
    • Example: Liking your nursing degree because it provides you with useful information in dealing with people
    • Kind of like cognitive schemas
  537. Ego-defensive function
    • some attitudes help to protect us from acknowledging threatening self-truths, helping us maintain a positive self-image
    • Example: Liking your nursing degree because you really wanted to become a doctor but weren't good enough
  538. Value-expressive function
    • some attitudes express values that are of high personal importance to us (politics, environment, religion)
    • Example: Liking your nursing degree because it illustrated your commitment to helping people
  539. What study did LaPierre perform in 1934?
    • On attitudes and behavior matching
    • Methods:
    • He spent 3 months with a young Chinese couple traveling across the US
    • He wanted to know how many restaurants and hotels would refuse service to the couple
    • Results:
    • Only 1 out of 250 refused to serve the couple
    • But, when he sent out letters to same establishments, of the 128 replies, 90% said they would refuse to serve Chinese people
    • Attitudes did not predict behavior at all
    • This was later linked to a lack of the same specificity between the attitude (general) and behavior (specific Chinese couple)
  540. Specificity
    • Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975
    • attitudes and behavior are more likely to correspond if they are at the same level of specificity
    • the determinant of attitude-behavior link
    • specific attitudes = specific behaviors
  541. Time (in attitude measurement)
    the longer the time between attitude measurement and the measurement of behavior, the more likely it is that the attitude will change
  542. What study was done in time in attitude measurement in 1974?
    Fishbein and Coombs observed that the correlation between attitudes and voting behavior was stronger one week before voting in an election compared to one month before voting
  543. How does self-awareness effect behavior?
    • Privately self-aware individuals behave in line with their own attitude (private attitude predicts private behavior)
    • Publicly self-aware individuals behave in line with the attitude they perceive the majority of other people to hold (public attitude predicts public behavior)
  544. What three things can effect attitude strength and attitude-behavior consistency?
    • Greater information about attitude object
    • Greater personal involvement with attitude object
    • Greater direct experience with attitude object
    • All lead to greater attitude strength and greater attitude-behavior consistency
  545. Availability heuristic for attitude accessibility
    • The more accessible an attitude the greater attitude-behavior consistency
    • Measured by speed of response to questions concerning the attitude object
  546. Attitude strength
    The stronger one's attitudes are, the more likely they are to have an influence on behavior
  547. Theory of planned behavior
    theory developed to explain the processes by which people deliberately decide to engage in a specific action
  548. Who performed a study on the theory of planned behavior in 1975? What about in 1999?
    • Fishbein and Ajzen
    • Terry, Hogg and White
  549. What were the study methods and results of Terry et al's study on group norms and behavioral intentions?
    • Terry et al said that in some cases subjective norms could be better conceptualized as group norms
    • Methods:
    • 143 participants from households that had access to recycling bins were asked to report how likely it was that they would engage in household recycling during the following fortnight
    • They were also asked how many of their friends and peer they thought would engage in household recycling and how much they thought their friends and peers would approve of them engaging in household recycling
    • They were also asked how much they identified with and fit in with their group of friends and peers
    • Results:
    • Participants who strongly identified with their peer group had stronger behavioral intentions if they believed their group had strong norms concerning recycling and the opposite was true for participants without a strong identity
  550. Three factors, when together, can predict behavioral intentions
    • Attitude toward behavior
    • Subjective norms
    • Perceived control
  551. How are attitudes determined?
    By one's beliefs about the consequences of performing the behavior and one's evaluation of the possible consequences of performing the behavior
  552. Subjective norms
    perceived expectations of significant others who may approve or disapprove of the planned behavior
  553. Perceived control
    person's perception of how easy or difficult it is to perform the behavior
  554. Behavioral intention
    a person's attitude, subjective norms and perceived control over the behavior combine in an interactive way to determine behavioral intention, which in turn determines whether or not the behavior will be carried out
  555. Group norms
    set of shared beliefs about how group members should think and behave
  556. Self-perception theory
    when we have no (or very weak) prior existing attitudes on a particular issues we can infer our attitudes from observing our own behaviors
  557. Reasoned action vs spontaneity
    • Many social behaviors are automatic and do not entail much deliberate thought
    • Reasoned action = naive scientist = systematic processing
    • Spontaneity = cognitive miser = heuristics
  558. Cognitive dissonance theory
    • when people behave in a way that is inconsistent with their existing attitude, they experience discomfort
    • to eliminate this discomfort, it is necessary to adjust one's attitude in line with one's behavior
  559. What is the heart of cognitive dissonance theory?
    Motivational instead of cognitive
  560. Who developed the cognitive dissonance theory?
    Festinger, 1957
  561. What study did Festinger and Carlsmith perform in 1959?
    • Cognitive dissonance theory
    • Methods:
    • Participants had to complete one of two boring tasks for an hour, and then were told to lie to the next participant and tell them it was great
    • They were offered $1 or $20, and the control group did not have to lie and were not offered money
    • After completing the task, all participants were asked to give their true attitude regarding how fun and interesting the task really was
    • Results:
    • The $1 participants experienced greater inconsistency between their attitude and behavior than the $20 participants so they changed their attitude to match their behavior, while the $20 participants had enough justification to tell their lie
  562. Three key factors that determine whether cognitive dissonance occurs
    • Justification
    • Choice
    • Investment
  563. Justification
    if people can justify why they behaved inconsistently with their attitudes, they are less likely to change their attitude in line with their behavior
  564. Freedom of choice
    if a person is forced to behave in a way that contravenes their attitudes, they have a justification for their behavior and will therefore be unlikely to change their attitude in line with their behavior
  565. Investment
    the more invested someone is in their point of view, the stronger the effect of dissonance will be
  566. What was Aronson's argument accounting for cognitive dissonance and self-perceptions theories are both correct?
    • Cognitive dissonance will occur when discrepancies are clear and distinct, the attitude in question is important for the self-concept, and when it is not possible to explain away the discrepancy
    • When discrepancies are mild and/or the attitude is not particularly important to someone, then self-perception processes are likely to operate
  567. Persuasion
    when attitudes change as a result of being influenced by an EXTERNAL message
  568. Dual route models of persuasion
    • models that propose our attitudes can be changed as a result of external messages via two different routes (central and peripheral)
    • proved most successful in explaining how, when and why people are or are not persuaded by others
  569. Elaboration-likelihood model
    Petty and Cacioppo (1986) argued that attitudes could change via two routes depending on how much an individual elaborates on the message - central or peripheral
  570. Heuristic-systematic model
    Chaiken (1980) argued that when people hear a persuasive communication, they either process it systematically, considering its strengths or weaknesses, or use heuristic 'short-cuts'
  571. Central route
    • when people are motivated and able to think carefully about the content of a message, they are influenced by the strength and quality of the arguments
    • (systematic/naive scientist)
  572. Peripheral route
    • when people are unwilling or unable to analyze message content, they instead pay attention to cues that are irrelevant to the content or quality of the communication to make a decision more quickly and with less effort
    • (heuristic/cognitive miser)
  573. True or false: the peripheral route of attitude change develops attitudes that are weaker, less resistant to counter argument and less predictive of behavior than central route attitudes
    True
  574. Five factors influencing what route (central or peripheral) is taken
    • Speed of speech
    • Mood
    • Involvement
    • Individual differences
    • Humor
  575. Rapid speech
    Makes it hard to process the content of the message so the peripheral route is used
  576. Mood
    • good mood = more willing to help; tend to use peripheral route to persuasion
    • bad mood = less willing to help; tend to use central route to persuasion
  577. Importance to self
    if a decision we have to make is important to us, or is likely to have personal consequences, we are more likely to think in depth about the issue, taking the central route to persuasion, rather than relying on heuristics
  578. Martin and Hewstone did a study in 2003 on minorities and majorities changing attitudes in different ways. What were their methods and results?
    • On importance to self
    • Methods:
    • Participants in favor of voluntary euthanasia and against single currency in Europe read a counter-attitudinal argument
    • Participants either received the message from a minority source or a majority source and read either strong evidence based messages or weak messages on the topic
    • Results:
    • When the message did not have a very negative personal outcome for participants people receiving info from a minority source were more persuaded by strong message, whereas people receiving info from a majority source were equally influenced by strong and weak message
    • In contrast, when the message concerned was perceived as having a very negative personal outcome, people receiving info from a majority source were more persuaded by strong messages
    • A MAJORITY SOURCE IS LIKELY TO LEAD TO HEURISTIC PROCESSING WHEREAS A MINORITY SOURCE IS MORE LIKELY TO LEAD TO SYSTEMATIC PROCESSING
  579. Need for cognition - individual difference
    • the degree to which an individual is oriented to engaging in effortful thought
    • people high in need for cognition are more likely to take the central route to persuasion
  580. Need for closure - individual difference
    • tendency to desire knowledge that is clear, stable and unambiguous, as opposed to confusing and uncertain
    • people high in need for closure are more likely to take the central route to persuasion
  581. Need to evaluate
    • some people have a stronger tendency than others to judge the nature of objects, people and situation
    • the stronger this tendency, the great the use of the central route to persuasion
  582. Self-monitoring
    • degree to which someone is concerned with what other people think of them
    • people high in self-monitoring are more likely to take the central route to persuasion
  583. Humor
    relevant humor leads to the central route, while irrelevant humor leads to the peripheral route
  584. What are the cues when the peripheral route is taken in persuasion?
    • Physical attractiveness
    • Similarity to self
    • Source credibility
  585. Physical attractiveness
    we are more likely to be persuaded by someone who is physically attractive than someone who is unattractive
  586. Similarity to self
    we are more likely to be persuaded by someone who is similar to us in terms of shared attitudes, appearance or social categories
  587. Source credibility
    • a key peripheral cue to persuasion
    • if the source of a persuasive argument is an expert on the topic, or appears to be unbiased and trustworthy, we are more likely to perceive them to be credible, and to accept their message
  588. Source memory
    • we encode info about the source of the argument as well as the argument but our memory of the source decays over time
    • if the source was not credible, we may be persuaded more by the argument over time
    • if the source was credible, we may be persuaded less by the argument over time, as we forget info about the source
  589. What is the sleeper effect?
    The delayed effectiveness of a persuasive message from a non-credible source
  590. Who performed a study on the sleeper effect and what were the methods and results?
    • Hovland and Weiss, 1951
    • Methods:
    • Participants read an article stating that nuclear submarines were safe by a credible author or an incredible author
    • Results:
    • Immediate results = high credibility source had the greater persuasion
    • 4 weeks later = effect of source credibility had disappeared (source memory had disappeared) and content was the only thing recalled

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