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What is the function of the heart?
f: pump blood thruout the entire body; it drives the cardiovascular system
Where is the heart located?
In the thorax, in the inferior middle mediastinum; oriented toward the left side of the body
What is the Heart Surrounded By?
The Pericardium or the Pericardial Sac
What Are the Superior Borders of the Heart?
Center, Left, and Right
- Center: Great vessels emerging from the heart
- Ex) pulmonary trunk, aorta, and Superior Vena Cava
Left: From 2nd left costal cartilage, 1.5 inches lateral from the body of the sternum
Right: from the 3rd right costal cartialge, 0.5 inches lateral from the body of the sternum
What are the Right Borders of the Heart?
*Extends from the 3rd right costal cartilage to the 6th right costal cartilage, 0.5 inches lateral from the sternum
What are the Left Borders of the Heart?
Left Ventricle & Left Auricle
*Extends from the 2nd costal cartilage to the 5th intercostal space, 3.5 inches lateral to the sternum (apex of the ♥)
What are the Inferior borders of the Heart?
Right Ventricle & some of the left ventricle
*Extends from the 6th right costal cartilage 0.5 inches lateral from the sternum to the 5th left intercostal space 3.5 inches lateral from the sternum (apex)
The three surfaces of the Heart
1) Sternocostal Surface (Anterior)
2) Diaphragmatic Surface (Inferior)
3) Base (Posterior)
Sternocostal Surface (Anterior)
the surface deep to sternum and the ribs
*made up of right atrium and right ventricle, plus some of the left ventricle
(Inferior): the surface in contact with the diaphragm , the lowest border of the thorax
*Right and left ventricles and part of the right atrium
* surface the heart "sits on"
Base Surface of the Heart
(Posterior): rests against T5-T9 Vertebrae
*Back of the heart
*left atrium, part of right atrium, left ventricle
The three External Markings of the Heart
1) anterior interventricular sulcus (groove)
2) posterior interventricular sulcus (groove)
3) Atrioventricular groove (sulcus)
What is found in the Anterior Interventricular Groove (Sulcus)?
The Left Coronary Artery
What is found in the Atrioventricular Groove (sulcus)?
*The Coronary Sinus
What is found in the posterior interventricular groove (sulcus)?
Posterior Interventricular Branch of the Right Coronay Artery, and some veins
What are the two layers of Parietal Pericardium?
Fibrous Layer of the Parietal Pericardium
Smooth Layer (Serous Layer) of the Parietal Pericardium
Another name for the visceral Pericardium?
a potential space that exists between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium
(the smooth layer/ serous layer is in contact with the visceral pericardium)
Two spaces associated with the Pericardium?
1) Transverse Pericardial Sinus
2) Oblique Pericardial Sinus
Transverse Pericardial Sinus
with in the space between parietal and visceral pericardium
* a real space located behind the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk as they arise from the superior border of the heart (found next to the superior vena cava)
Oblique Pericardial Sinus
A potential space found between the posterior surface of the heart and the posterior wall of the parietal pericardium
(between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium)
Below the pulmonary arteries
What are the three cardiac walls of the Heart?
cardiac muscle cells
thin serous membrane in contact with the blood - lines the chambers of the heart
Structures in the Right Atrium
- 1) fossa ovalis
- 2) pectinate muscle
- 3) crista terminalis
- 4) sulcus terminalis
- 5) opening for superior vena cava
- 6) opening for inferior vena cava
- 7) opening for coronary sinus