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What is the general purpose of the Integument?
To be a boundary between environment and organism.
List 5 functions of the Integument.
The Epidermis originates from what?
List the 2 layers of the Epidermis; which one is outer and which is inner layer?
- Stratum Corneum; Outer
- Stratum Germinativum; Inner
List a few examples of the appendages that Epidermis gives rise to.
- Amniote Scales
The interaction between epidermis & dermis
Dermis originates from what?
Which of the two, Epidermis or Dermis, is the living part of the skin?
Describe the Dermis.
- Possible Fat Deposits
List two examples of things the Dermis gives rise to.
Define Chromatophore and its function.
- Pigmented cells of neural crest origin.
- Used for camouflage & communication.
In what animal groups are Chromatophores located in the dermis?
In what animal groups are Chromatophores located in the epidermis?
What are two of the earliest fishes?
What kind of skin did Ostracoderms have and from what layer did it arise?
Bony Skin; Dermal Bone
What are the 3 theories for the evolution of bone?
- Insulation of electrosensory organs on head
- Calcium-phosphate reservoir
What is bone made out of?
List three groups of Living Fish.
Describe the epidermis of the Living Fish
- Many mucous producing glands
- Thin layer over dermal scales
Describe the dermis of the Living Fish
- Thicker than Epidermis
- Scales and denticles result from ectodermal-mesodermal interaction
List 4 Fish Scale Derivatives
- Dermal Armor
- Dermal Skull Bones
- Fin Rays
What is significant about Chondrichthyes dermis?
Dermal Denticles (dentin and enamel)
List the three groups of Osteichthyes and their dermal layers.
- Sarcopterygian - Cosmoid
- Paleoniscoids - Ganoid
- Telecosts - Cycloid & Ctenoid
Give an example of a Sacropterygian.
Give 2 examples of Paleoniscoids.
Thin enamel, thick dentin, bone
Thick enamel, bone
Describe Cycloid and Ctenoid
Osteichthyes comprise what animal group?
The currently living fish
What is known as the earliest tetrapod?
What type of skin did the Labyrinthodonts have?
What was the advantage of the Labyrinthodont's dermal scales?
Helped avoid dessication (drying up)
Describe the Epidermis of Living Amphibians.
Thin stratum corneum, many glands (mucous & poison)
Describe the Dermis of the Living Amphibians.
Thin, highly vascular; no bone
The Dermis of the Living Amphibians is highly vascular and allows them to do what?
Gas exchange (respiration) through the skin.
What kind of skin do Reptiles have?
Describe the Epidermis of Reptiles.
- Thick stratum corneum.
- Few glands - mostly scent.
- Molting of skin (snakes and lizards)
List 4 Reptiles.
- Lizards & Snakes
- Turtles & Crocodilians
Describe the dermis of Turtles & Crocodilians
- Shell for Turtles
- Bony Plates for Crocodilians
Describe the epidermis of Birds.
- Thin and elastic
- Appendages - feathers, scales, claws, horny part of beak
- Uropygial Gland
What is the Uropygial Gland, its function, and where is it located?
It's an oil gland that birds use to maintain their feathers; located on rump of bird
Describe the dermis of the Birds
Muscles to move feathers; no bone
Feathers are primarily what?
Epidermal but mesoderm contributes during development.
Feather Growth is induced by what?
Dermal Papilla produceing Follicle
Describe the Epidermis of the Mammals.
- Relatively thick with variable stratum corneum
List the appendages that arise from Epidermis of Mammals
List the glands of the epidermis of Mammals
What is the function of the Sebaceous Gland?
Oil for maintaing hair
What is the function of the Sweat Gland?
Thermoregulation to dissipate heat and to some degree waste
What is the purpose of Scent Glands?
- Sexual Behavior
What is the function of the Mammary gland?
Provides nourishment to offspring
What of the 4 glands are unique to mammals?
Give an example of a Mammal with Dermal Bone
Head gear (antlers and horns) are appendages from what skin layer?
Dermal and Epidermal Appendages
Hair structure & development arises as a result of interaction of what?
Ectodermal and Mesodermal
List the steps to hair development
- Stratum germinativum grows into mesoderm and produces a follicle.
- Well innervated dermal papilla develops from mesoderm at base of follicle.
- Associated structures form - arrector pili muscle, sebaceous glands.