BIOL432 Integument

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Geo
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101908
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BIOL432 Integument
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2011-09-15 12:15:51
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BIOL432 Integument
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BIOL432 Integument
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  1. What is the general purpose of the Integument?
    To be a boundary between environment and organism.
  2. List 5 functions of the Integument.
    • Sensory
    • Protection
    • Communication
    • Locomotion
    • Physiology
  3. The Epidermis originates from what?
    Ectodermal
  4. List the 2 layers of the Epidermis; which one is outer and which is inner layer?
    • Stratum Corneum; Outer
    • Stratum Germinativum; Inner
  5. List a few examples of the appendages that Epidermis gives rise to.
    • Glands
    • Amniote Scales
    • Feathers
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Claws
  6. Define Induction.
    The interaction between epidermis & dermis
  7. Dermis originates from what?
    Mesoderm
  8. Which of the two, Epidermis or Dermis, is the living part of the skin?
    Dermis
  9. Describe the Dermis.
    • Vascular
    • Innervated
    • Fibrous
    • Possible Fat Deposits
  10. List two examples of things the Dermis gives rise to.
    • Fish Scales
    • Bone
  11. Define Chromatophore and its function.
    • Pigmented cells of neural crest origin.
    • Used for camouflage & communication.
  12. In what animal groups are Chromatophores located in the dermis?
    • Fish
    • Amphibians
    • Reptiles
  13. In what animal groups are Chromatophores located in the epidermis?
    • Mammals
    • Birds
  14. What are two of the earliest fishes?
    • Placoderms
    • Ostracoderms
  15. What kind of skin did Ostracoderms have and from what layer did it arise?
    Bony Skin; Dermal Bone
  16. What are the 3 theories for the evolution of bone?
    • Protection
    • Insulation of electrosensory organs on head
    • Calcium-phosphate reservoir
  17. What is bone made out of?
    Hydroxy Apatite
  18. List three groups of Living Fish.
    • Agnathans
    • Chondrichthyes
    • Osteichthyes
  19. Describe the epidermis of the Living Fish
    • Many mucous producing glands
    • Thin layer over dermal scales
  20. Describe the dermis of the Living Fish
    • Thicker than Epidermis
    • Scales and denticles result from ectodermal-mesodermal interaction
  21. List 4 Fish Scale Derivatives
    • Dermal Armor
    • Teeth
    • Dermal Skull Bones
    • Fin Rays
  22. What is significant about Chondrichthyes dermis?
    Dermal Denticles (dentin and enamel)
  23. List the three groups of Osteichthyes and their dermal layers.
    • Sarcopterygian - Cosmoid
    • Paleoniscoids - Ganoid
    • Telecosts - Cycloid & Ctenoid
  24. Give an example of a Sacropterygian.
    Coelocanth
  25. Give 2 examples of Paleoniscoids.
    • Gar
    • Bowfins
  26. Describe Cosmoid.
    Thin enamel, thick dentin, bone
  27. Describe Ganoid
    Thick enamel, bone
  28. Describe Cycloid and Ctenoid
    Lamellar Bone
  29. Osteichthyes comprise what animal group?
    The currently living fish
  30. What is known as the earliest tetrapod?
    Labyrinthodonts
  31. What type of skin did the Labyrinthodonts have?
    Dermal Scales
  32. What was the advantage of the Labyrinthodont's dermal scales?
    Helped avoid dessication (drying up)
  33. Describe the Epidermis of Living Amphibians.
    Thin stratum corneum, many glands (mucous & poison)
  34. Describe the Dermis of the Living Amphibians.
    Thin, highly vascular; no bone
  35. The Dermis of the Living Amphibians is highly vascular and allows them to do what?
    Gas exchange (respiration) through the skin.
  36. What kind of skin do Reptiles have?
    Epidermal Scales
  37. Describe the Epidermis of Reptiles.
    • Thick stratum corneum.
    • Few glands - mostly scent.
    • Molting of skin (snakes and lizards)
  38. List 4 Reptiles.
    • Lizards & Snakes
    • Turtles & Crocodilians
  39. Describe the dermis of Turtles & Crocodilians
    • Shell for Turtles
    • Bony Plates for Crocodilians
  40. Describe the epidermis of Birds.
    • Thin and elastic
    • Appendages - feathers, scales, claws, horny part of beak
    • Uropygial Gland
  41. What is the Uropygial Gland, its function, and where is it located?
    It's an oil gland that birds use to maintain their feathers; located on rump of bird
  42. Describe the dermis of the Birds
    Muscles to move feathers; no bone
  43. Feathers are primarily what?
    Epidermal but mesoderm contributes during development.
  44. Feather Growth is induced by what?
    Dermal Papilla produceing Follicle
  45. Describe the Epidermis of the Mammals.
    • Relatively thick with variable stratum corneum
    • Appendages
    • Glands
  46. List the appendages that arise from Epidermis of Mammals
    • Hair
    • Scales
    • Claws
    • Hooves
  47. List the glands of the epidermis of Mammals
    • Sebaceous
    • Sweat
    • Scent
    • Mammary
  48. What is the function of the Sebaceous Gland?
    Oil for maintaing hair
  49. What is the function of the Sweat Gland?
    Thermoregulation to dissipate heat and to some degree waste
  50. What is the purpose of Scent Glands?
    • Communication
    • Defense
    • Sexual Behavior
  51. What is the function of the Mammary gland?
    Provides nourishment to offspring
  52. What of the 4 glands are unique to mammals?
    Mammary Gland
  53. Give an example of a Mammal with Dermal Bone
    Armadillo
  54. Head gear (antlers and horns) are appendages from what skin layer?
    Dermal and Epidermal Appendages
  55. Hair structure & development arises as a result of interaction of what?
    Ectodermal and Mesodermal
  56. List the steps to hair development
    • Stratum germinativum grows into mesoderm and produces a follicle.
    • Well innervated dermal papilla develops from mesoderm at base of follicle.
    • Associated structures form - arrector pili muscle, sebaceous glands.

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