Zoology Lecture Unit 1

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  1. Define Science
    The observation of natural phenomena and the methods used to determine how those phenomena occur. Science is constrained by natural laws, therefor science must be conducted within the realm of these natural laws.
  2. The four commonalities of all organisms:
    • DNA (common genetic molecule)
    • The Cell (common unit of life)
    • Natural Selection (common evolutionary forces)
    • Earth (common environment)
  3. Chemical Evolution:
    thought of how organic molecules may have come about.
  4. There are two different cell types:
    Prokaryote and Eukaryote
  5. Prokaryote and Eukaryote cells both have:
    • cell walls (usually)
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • ribosomes
    • DNA.
  6. Eukaryotic cells:
    • have membrane bound organelles that divide up the functions of the cell.
    • have chloroplast, mitochondria, ER, etc.
    • Membrane bound organelles allow functions to be performed faster and more efficient.
  7. Prokaryotic cells:
    • don't have nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.
    • are about 1/10 the size of eukaryotic cells.
    • All are found in single cell organisms.
  8. Three Domains
    • Eubacteria (true bacteria, prokaryotic cells)
    • Archaea (ancient, prokaryotic cells)
    • Eukarya (eukaryotic cells).
  9. Six Kingdoms :
    • Eubacteria (in Eubacteria Domain)
    • Archaebacteria (in Archaea Domain)
    • Animals
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Protists (All in Eukarya because they have eukaryotic cells).
  10. Eubacteria:
    • prokaryotic
    • unicellular (single celled)
    • all have cell walls
    • autotrophic (producer, “auto” mean from within) or heterotrophic (consumer). Heterotrophic consume other organics to obtain their energy.
    • asexual reproduction (binary fission: to split into two) and conjugation (gene mixing: for genetic diversity. Not reproduction)
  11. Archaebacteria:
    • prokaryotic
    • unicellular
    • all have cell walls
    • heterotrophs and chemotrophs
    • have some eukaryotic like genes and live in extreme conditions
    • asexual reproduction (binary fission) and conjugation (gene mixing)
  12. Protista:
    • eukaryotic
    • unicellular (single celled)
    • many have cell walls
    • autotrophic (producer) or heterotrophic (consumer)
    • asexual reproduction (binary fission) and conjugation (gene mixing)
  13. Fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular (most)
    • all have cell walls
    • all heterotrophic (consumer)
    • sessile (stay in one place, can't move)
    • asexual & sexual reproduction.
  14. Plantae:
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular
    • all have cell walls
    • autotrophic (producer)
    • sessile
    • asexual & sexual reproduction
  15. Animalia:
    • eukaryotic
    • multicellular
    • none have cell walls.
    • heterotrophic (consumer)
    • capable of movemen
    • asexual & sexual reproduction
  16. Systematics:
    the study of the biological diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships.
  17. Taxonomy:
    the study of the identification and classification of species.
  18. Classification
    the system used to name and order species and their related groups.
  19. Phylogeny:
    the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
  20. Homology:
    similar characters found in related groups due to a common ancestor.
  21. Homoplasy:
    similar characters found in unrelated groups with no common ancestor.
  22. Homologous structures
    can lead to divergent evolution.
  23. Analogous structures
    indicate convergent evolution.
  24. Mutual adaptations
    lead to parallel evolution.
  25. Clade:
    a group consisting of an ancestral species and all of its descendants
  26. Plesiomorphic:
    ancestral characters found in all members of a clade
  27. Symplesiomorphy:
    the sharing of ancestral characters in a clade.
  28. Derived Characters:
    a character that arises after the common ancestor
  29. Synapomorphy:
    the sharing of derived characters among a clade
  30. Comparative morphology:
    • examines the physical features of extinct and extant organisms
    • uses homologous and vestigial structures to determine phylogeny.
    • vestigial structures are those that are retained, but no longer used.
  31. Comparative biochemistry
    • examine the sequences of amino acids and nucleotides
    • quantifies the similarities among extant organisms
    • usually cannot be used on extinct organisms
  32. Comparative cytology
    • examine the numbers and sizes f chromosomes in extant organisms
    • compares how cells and tissues develop
    • usually cannot be used on extinct organisms.
  33. A Phylogenetic Tree:
    • shows timeline
    • looks at which groups gave rise to other groups
    • looks at where and when groups split off
    • shows ancestors of modern animals.
  34. Monophyletic Group:
    a group that contains all the descendants of the most common ancestor
  35. Paraphyletic Group:
    a group that contains the common ancestor and some, but not all of its descendants.
  36. Polyphyletic Group:
    a group that does not have a recent common ancestor
  37. Phenetics:
    • also known as numerical taxonomy
    • quantitatively analyzes the number of phenotypic (physical) characters
    • it makes no attempt to determine common ancestry, therefore no grouping
  38. Biological:
    a group of populations in which genes are exchanged through reproductively isolated breeding, producing viable offspring. (born alive and can reproduce own kind if they reach adulthood) Does not include asexual organisms.
  39. Evolutionary:
    a single lineage of populations that maintains its identity from other lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate. (includes sexual and asexual organisms)
  40. Phylogenetic:
    a group of organisms that are diagnosable distinct from other groups and in which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent. (includes sexual and asexual organism) “splitters” because they like to split larger groups into smaller groups.
  41. James Hutton
    proposed the theory of gradualism
  42. Charles Lyell
    stated the concept of uniformitarianism
  43. Thomas Malthus
    stated if a population outgrew its resources, it would restrain the population.
  44. Erasmus Darwin
    formulated one of the first theories of evolution
  45. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
    published his theory of evolution the year Darwin was born
  46. Alfred Wallace
    developed the same theory of natural selection
  47. Darwin's Four Postulates of Natural Selection
    • 1. Each generation will produce more offspring than can possibly survive.
    • 2. Inherited variations occur due to random mutations.
    • 3. Because of limited resources, not all offspring survive. Those with the most advantageous variations will survive.
    • 4. The adaptive traits are perpetuated in the following generations – non-adaptive are eliminated.
  48. Gradualism:
    Change is gradual over millions of years.
  49. Punctuated equilibrium:
    Change is rapid of thousands of years. Transitional fossils are unlikely.
  50. List the 8 taxa
    Domain → Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species
  51. genetic equilibrium
    is a theoretical reference point in which the allele frequency of a given gene remains stable from one generation to the next
  52. genetic drift can be caused by
    inbreeding, bottleneck effect, founders effect
  53. Bottleneck effect:
    A species has many alleles, but only a few animals survive, so only the alleles these animals carry survive.
  54. Biological Species Definition:
    a group of populations in which genes are exchanged through reproductively isolated mating, producing viable offspring.
  55. Prezygotic:
    • 1) mechanical isolation: mating organisms do not fit
    • 2) ecological isolation: live in different environments
    • 3) temporal isolation: active or fertile at different times
    • 4) behavioral isolation: differences in activities
    • 5) gametic isolation: gametes cannot combine. Sperm cannot enter egg
    • 6) chromosomal isolation; chromosomes cannot pair. Sperm fertilizes egg, but different number of chromosomes
  56. Postzygotic:
    • 1) hybrid inviability: gametes combine, but development cannot produce viable embryo. Spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. May be born but wouldn't live past birth
    • 2) hybrid infertility: hybrids lack the ability to make or deliver viable gametes. Living offspring, but cannot reproduce
  57. Allopatric Speciation:
    this type of speciation occurs due to the development of a physical barrier
  58. Sympatric Speciation:
    this type of speciation occurs within the home range of the population
  59. Parapatric Speciation:
    this type of speciation occurs when two neighboring populations become distinct species
  60. Population:
    a group of like organisms living in a given geographic location
  61. Community:
    a group of populations living in a given geographic location
  62. Ecosystem:
    all the biotic and abiotic factors in a given geographic location.
  63. Biosphere:
    anywhere on earth in which life exists
  64. Mutualism:
    both members gain a benefit
  65. Commensalism:
    one member gains a benefit while the other is unaffected
  66. Parasitism:
    one member gains a benefit while the other is harmed
  67. Competition:
    neither member benefits due to reduced fitness
  68. Predation:
    one species consuming another
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Zoology Lecture Unit 1
Zoology Lecture Unit 1
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