Microbiology

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asu
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101938
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Microbiology
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2011-09-15 15:16:41
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1st Exam
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  1. 1) Which statement is not true as a general rule? A) Microbial cells exist as single cells. B) Microbial cells exclude the cells of plants and animals. C) Microbial cells carry out their life processes of growth independently. D) Microbial cells include both bacteria and viruses.
    D
  2. Basic microbiology can be used to A) model our understanding of cellular processes in multicellular organisms, including humans. B) study characteristics of cells of multicellular organisms. C) probe the fundamental processes of life. D) do all of the above.
    D
  3. Applied microbiology deals with important practical problems in A) agriculture. B) industry. C) medicine. D) all of the above.
    D
  4. The largest mass of living material on Earth comes from A) plants. B) animals. C) microorganisms. D) plants and animals together.
    C
  5. The cell's genome is stored in A) the cytoplasm. B) the nucleus or nucleoid. C) the cytoplasmic membrane. D) none of the above.
    B
  6. Because the cell communicates, exchanges materials with its environment, and undergoes evolution, it is called a(n) A) nucleoid system. B) living system. C) closed system. D) ancestral system.
    B
  7. Changes in cellular characteristics are transmitted to offspring through the process of A) reproductive initiative. B) chemical signaling. C) evolution. D) none of the above.
    C
  8. Catalysts involved in the acceleration of the rate of chemical reactions are called A) enzymes. B) catalytic converters. C) evolutionary molecules. D) growth agents.
    A
  9. Regarding early life on Earth, A) microbial life existed long before animals but has been around for about the same amount of time as plants. B) microbial life existed for billions of years before plant and animal life. C) microbial life, plant life, and animal life all appeared at about the same time. D) it is impossible to determine which type of life first appeared.
    B
  10. Most prokaryotic cells reside A) in lakes, rivers, and oceans. B) in and on nonprokaryotic organisms (including humans and other animals). C) in the oceanic and terrestrial subsurfaces. D) on Earth's surface.
    C
  11. The person who described the "wee animalcules" was A) Pasteur. B) Cohn. C) Hooke. D) van Leeuwenhoek.
    D
  12. Fannie Hesse is credited with giving __________ the idea to use agar as a solidifying agent. A) Cohn B) Koch C) Winogradsky D) Pasteur
    B
  13. Which of the following is/are characteristic of cellular organisms? A) communication B) regeneration and reproduction C) metabolism D) all of the above
    D
  14. Which of the following is not a major ecosystem? A) terrestrial B) aquatic C) atmospheric D) other organisms, such as plants and animals
    C
  15. Which statement is true? A) Populations are assemblages of habitats. B) Microbial communities are assemblages of populations. C) Populations are assemblages of microbial communities. D) Habitats are assemblages of microbial communities.
    B
  16. During a very scientifically productive period in his life, Pasteur developed vaccines for A) rabies. B) fowl cholera. C) anthrax. D) all of the above.
    D
  17. The discovery of antibiotics and other important chemicals led to the field of A) marine microbiology. B) agricultural microbiology. C) aquatic microbiology. D) industrial microbiology.
    D
  18. Microbial sterilization is used to A) decrease the possibility of contaminants growing in a culture. B) kill bacteria but not necessarily viruses or other microbes. C) clean a work area. D) kill all microbes in or on objects.
    D
  19. Transparent double-sided dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called A) 
Petri dishes. B) culture medium plates. C) baker dishes. D) sterilization plates
    A
  20. Microbes playing a role in nitrogen fixation in plants live in __________, while those playing a role in the digestive tract of certain herbivores live in __________. A) rumens / nodules B) fortrans / rumens C) nodules / rumens D) nodules / fortrans
    C
  21. Genetic engineering could best be described as A) the creation of life from nonlife. B) the expansion of biomass to meet specific needs. C) treatment of diseases with synthetic drugs. D) the artificial manipulation of genes and gene products.
    D
  22. The ultimate downfall of the theory of spontaneous generation was the result of work by A) Hooke. B) Pasteur. C) Koch. D) van Leeuwenhoek.
    B
  23. A Pasteur flask has a(n) A) secondary opening at the base to allow for drainage. B) inverted upper edge to prevent spillage while swirling. C) swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask. D) double neck so two substances may be added at the same time.
    C
  24. Koch's greatest accomplishment in the field of medical bacteriology was with A) Bacillus subtilis. B) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. C) Escherichia coli. D) Bacillus cereus.
    B
  25. A pure culture A) was cultured for a certified stock culture. B) is made of a clearly defined chemical medium. C) is sterile. D) is a population of identical cells.
    D
  26. Beijerinck was the first to isolate A) certain sulfate-reducing bacteria. B) green algae. C) certain nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria. D) all of the above.
    D
  27. Chemolithotrophy involves A) oxidation of inorganic compounds. B) reduction of organic compounds. C) oxidation of organic compounds. D) metabolic autotrophy.
    A
  28. Developments in the fields of immunology and medical microbiology were practical extensions of the work of A) Lister. B) Winogradsky. C) Koch. D) van Leeuwenhoek.
    C
  29. Microbial control in wastewaters would most logically be a part of A) aquatic microbiology. B) microbial technology. C) microbial genetics. D) bacterial energetics.
    A
  30. Viruses that infect bacteria are known as A) microphages. B) viroids. C) bacteriophages. D) bacterial consumers.
    C
  31. The science of grouping and classifying microorganisms is known as A) metabolomics. B) microbial systematics. C) microbial physiology. D) proteomics.
    B
  32. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very difficult to stain because of the A) location of the DNA within the cell. B) large amounts of a waxy lipid present in its cell wall.C) lack of a cell wall. D) presence of ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
    B
  33. Pasteur's most famous success was his work on A) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. B) fermentation in the winemaking process. C) optical isomers. D) the rabies vaccine.
    D
  34. Microorganisms play key roles in the cycling of important nutrients in plant nutrition, particularly those of A) nitrogen. B) sulfur. C) carbon. D) carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
    D
  35. Microbial ecology is the study of A) microbial processes in the soil that benefit plant growth. B) the diversity and activities of marine microorganisms. C) microorganisms in their natural environments. D) the grouping and classifying of microorganisms.
    C
  36. The structure that confers structural strength on the cell and protects it from osmotic lysis is known as the A) cytoplasm. B) ribosome. C) cell wall. D) cytoplasmic membrane.
    C
  37. The four macromolecules common to all cells are: __________, __________, __________, and __________.
    proteins / lipids / carbohydrates / nucleic acids (any order)
  38. Our concept of what is a living organism is constrained by __________.
    what we can observe on Earth or dduce from the fossil record
  39. The study of the structure of microorganisms would be a part of microbial __________.
    cytology
  40. List three contributions of Ferdinand Cohn to the development of microbiology.
    founding bacteriology as a separate science, studying Beggiatoa, discovering the genus Bacillus (along with its endospore formation and its life cycle), devising methods to prevent contamination, and founding a major scientific journal.
  41. Robert Koch received the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for __________.
    tuberculosis
  42. The barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment is known as the __________.
    cytoplasmic membrane
  43. The __________ is the fundamental unit of life.
    cell
  44. __________ was the first to describe microorganisms, while __________ was the first person to see bacteria.
    Robert Hooke / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
  45. __________ described the first virus and also the basic principles of virology.
    Beijerinck

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