principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively
appeal of a text based on the logical structure of its argument
appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
appeal of a text to the emotions or interests of the audience
organization/ structure/ form the placement of ideas for effect
meaning is altered from the usual or expected
a play on words the bicycle was two-tired, so it could not stand up
a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
an explicit comparison, normally using like, as, than or if
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. Irony is used for many reasons, but frequently, it's used to create poignancy or humor.
the words literally state the opposite of the writer's or speaker's true meaning
events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen does not actually happen
facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but are known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
a part of something used to refer to the whole for example, 50 head of cattle referring to 50 complete animals 30 sails on the horizon
an entity referred to by one of its attributes or associationsfor example, The admissions office claims applications have risen.The White House spoke today.
juxtaposed words with seemingly contradictory meanings for example, "jumbo shrimp" "Microsoft Works"
a statement that seems untrue on the surface but is true nonetheless
a literary device in which the sound of a word is related to its meaning
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts
arrangement of ideas, words, or phrases that is stylistically effective
a set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses that appears in a sentence or paragraph
inverted parallelism; two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of terms. Purpose is to make a larger point or to provide balance or order You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget. -The Road
I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's job was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable. -David Foster Wallace
"I am stuck on Band-Aid brand 'cause Band-Aid's stuck on me." -Band Aid commercial
arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in order of increasing number of importance
juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas, often in parallel structure
order of words in a sentence
repetition of a group of words at the beginning of successive clauses "I have a dream"
Ad hominem argument
this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect "You can't believe Jack when he says the proposed policy would help the economy. He doesn't even have a job."
device using character or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
repetition of sounds, especially consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words
direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably common known, such as an event, book, myth, place or work of art
multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage
similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun
terse statement of known authorship that expresses a general truth or moral principle
emotional mood created by the entirety of literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
representation, especially pictorial or literary, in which the subject's distinctive features or peculiarities are deliberately exaggerated to produce a comic or grotesque effect
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb
slang or informality in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give work a conversational, familiar tone, includes local or regional dialects
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects the lady is a sun whose beauty and virtue shine on her lover from a distance
nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning
writer's word choice
strict, literal dictionary definition
primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid
Figure of speech
a device used to produce figurative language
describes traditions for each genre
major category into which a literary work fits
sermon; more informally, can include any serious talk, speech or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion or represent abstractions
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented
emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant
placing dissimilar items, descriptions, or ideas close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast
type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical unit such as clause and phrases.
first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood
telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule
adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic or bookish
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.
author presents or describes concepts, animals, inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
Point of view
perspective from which a story is told
one type of subject complement-an adjective, group of adjectives or adjective clause that follows a linking verb. It is in the predicate of the sentence, and modifies or describes the subject
a second type or subject complement-a noun, group of nouns or noun clause that renames the subject. It, like the predicate adjective, follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence
nonfiction or fiction; genre of writing
duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of language
persuasive device by which a writer tries to sway the audience's attention and response to any given work
bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
work that targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule
diction, syntax, figurative language
word or accompanying phrases or clause that follows a linking verb and complements or completes the subject of the sentence by either 1) renaming it or (2) describing it (appositive)
this word group contains both a subject and verb (plus any accompanying elements)
a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises-the first one called "major" and the second "minor-"that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion
represents or stands for something else
way author chooses to join words, phrases, clauses, and sentences; similar to diction but it is a group of words
central idea or message of a work, insight into life
sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning or proposition
similar to mood, author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience or both
word or phrase that links different ideas
ironic minimizing of fact, understatement presents something less significant than it is.
figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite. It uses understatement for emphasis, frequently with a negative assertion. "It's not so bad" "This meat isn't awful"
belittling; rhetorical figure by which something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves. It describes something that is very impressive with simplicity. "It's just a flesh wound!" (From the Black Knight in Monty Python and the Holy Grail, after having his armchopped off.)
intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights
writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing
Antecedent consequence relationship
the relationship expressed; by "if"..."then" reasoning.Ffor example, "If the Cubs sign Greg Maddux, then they will win the National League Pennant."