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  1. What are the borders of the lungs?
    • anterior
    • inferior
    • posterior
  2. what is the root of the lung and what structures does it contain?
    • aka hilus is on the medial surface of the lung
    • contains primary bronchi, pulmonary vessels, and nerves.
  3. what are oblique fissures and where are they located?
    • begins 2.5 inches from the apex of the lung and ends at costal cartilage 6.
    • separates lungs into sections
    • in both lungs
  4. what is the horizontal (transverse) (minor) fissure and where is it located?
    • separation of the right lung into another lobe.
    • line from costal cartilage 4
    • only in the right lung
  5. name the lobes of the right lung
    • superior
    • middle
    • inferior
  6. name the lobes of the left lung
    • superior
    • inferior
  7. where are the lobes of the right lung located in relation to the fissures?
    • superior lobe: above horizontal fissure
    • middle lobe: between oblique and horizontal
    • inferior lobe: below oblique
  8. how many segments make up the right and left lungs?
    • right=10
    • left=8
  9. right lung vs. left lung
    • right lung = groove for azygous vein
    • left lung= apicoposterior lingula (3,4) is a modified middle lobe. have cardiac notch and thoracic aorta groove
  10. what arteries supply the lungs?
    bronchial artery branched from thoracic aorta directly, following the bronchia tree
  11. what veins do the lungs utilize?
    bronchial veins with unoxygenated blood drain into azygous system which is unoxygenated as well as the pulmonary vein which is oxygenated
  12. what are the lymphatics of the lungs?
    hilus, pulmonary nodes, and tracheo-bronchial nodes
  13. what nerves effect the lungs?
    • vagus nerve CN 10
    • sympathetic trunk
  14. what effects does the vagus nerve have on the lungs?
    • bronchioconstriction
    • vasodilation
    • increased glandular secretion
  15. what effects does the sympathetic trunk have on the lungs?
    • vasomotor from T2-5
    • fibers produce bronchial dilation by relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchii
    • vasoconstriction
    • decrease glandular secretion
  16. physical characteristics of the diaphragm
    • separates thorax from abdomen
    • fibromuscular
    • dome shaped, right and left dome
    • right dome= upper border of rib 5 (because of liver)
    • left dome= lower border of rib 5
  17. what materials make up the diaphragm?
    • muscular: periphary
    • fibrous: central tendon
  18. right and left dome divided into what?
    • 3 parts each
    • 1: sternal=xiphoid process
    • 2: costal= domes arise from lower 6 ribs and costal cartilage
    • 3: lumbar= vertebral area
  19. what are the outlets of the diaphragm?
    • caval opening
    • esophageal opening
    • aortic opening
  20. where is the caval opening located in the daphragm and what structures are found in it?
    • where: TV 8
    • structures: right phrenic nerve, inferior vena cava, lymphatics
  21. where is the esophageal opening located in the diaphragm and what structures are found in it?
    • where: TV 10
    • structures: esophagus, right and left vagus, esophageal branch of the left gastric artery and vein.
  22. where is the aortic opening located in the diaphragm and what structures are found in it?
    • where: TV 12
    • structures: thoracic aorta, thoracic duct, greater splanchnic nerve, azygous vein
  23. what is the motor and sensory nerve supply to the central area of the diaphragm?
    both are the phrenic (C3, 4, 5)
  24. what is the nerve that supplies the left dome and 1/2 of the right dome in their central areas?
    left phrenic nerve
  25. what nerve supplies the periphery of the diaphragm?
    intercostal nerves
  26. what arteries supply the diaphragm?
    • musculophrenic- branch from internal thoracic artery
    • superior phrenic- thoracic aorta
    • inferior phrenic- branch directly from abdominal aorta
    • pericardiophrenic- accompanies phrenic nerve and a branch from internal thoracic artery
    • posterior intercostal arteries- thoracic aorta
  27. Is the diaphragm essential for respiration?
  28. what are the 3 changes that occur in the thorax for volume to increase in the thoracic cavity?
    • 1: contract diaphragm, flattens domes, superior-inferior movement (piston)
    • 2: elevate ribs towards first rib which is fixed by the muscle of the neck (scalenus anterior muscle) (bucket handle)
    • 3: elevate ribs anterior-posteriorally towards first rib (pump handle)
  29. what is the function of the 3 changes?
    create a negative pressure in the thoracic cavity and air enters the lungs.
  30. how to exhale?
    relax the contracted intercostal muscles
  31. what's different when forcing exhalation?
    involves serratus anterior as well as intercostal muscles.
  32. results of abdominal straining
    diaphragm contracts which deceases volume but increases pressure. when have too much pressure can cause a hernia.
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thorax #3
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