Physiology Exam 1 (Part 3)
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Energy from ATP rxns is used for: (3)
- Cellular mvmt
- Molecular synthesis
- Transport across membranes
Process of transferring a P group from one molec to another under anaerobic conditions in cytoplasm
Substrate level phophorylation
Producing ATP under aerobic conditions
Glycolysis produces molecs:
Glycolysis produces energy:
- 2 pyruvate molecs
- 2 ATP, 2 NADH
Pyruvate is used to make _____ if there is low oxygen availability (allows recycling of NADH)
Conversion of lactate to glucose in liver
2 pyruvates from glycolysis go on to make:
2 acetyl CoA and 2 NADH
Kreb's cycle & oxidative phosphorylation occur in:
Site of electron transport chain
Inner membrane of mitochondria
H+ is actively pumped from inside to outside, which causes H+ to flow back in (down conc gradient). Creates harvestable energy which is used to make ATP.
What is the ATP production of the following electron donors?
What is the % efficiency of glucose oxidation?
How are lipids catabolized?
Triglyceride is broken into Glycerol and 3 Free Fatty Acids
Glycerol ==> glycolysis
3 FFA ==> Beta oxidation --> acetyl coA --> kreb's cycle
Removes 2 carbon pieces (acetyl groups) from FAs and converts them to acetyl coA
16 carbon FA makes ___ acetyl coA
Substrates used to synthesis new glucose (glyconeogenesis)
- Amino acids (last resort)
Site of gluconeogenesis
Liver, small extent in kidneys
Energy to raise temp of 1g of water 1 degree C
Why transport is important (3)
- Obtaining O2 and nutrients
- Removing waste products
- Sending signals
Is more highly concentrated in ICF or ECF?
- K+ (ICF)
- Na+ (ECF)
- Cl- (ECF)
- Glucose (ECF)
What is transported across mem easily?
- Nonpolar & small molecs
- (ex: O2, CO2, FAs)
What can't pass through mem easily?
- Polar molecs & ions
- (ex: glucose, proteins, Na+, water)
Type of driving force that depends on concentration of atom/molec
Chemical driving force
Type driving force depends on charges
Electrical driving force is called
Membrane potential (Vm)
Membrane potential is measured in:
Membrane potential when elec force equals chem force
Resting membrane potential is b/w __ and __ millivolts
-50 to -70
Rate of particles crossing membrane
3 types passive mem transport
- Simple diffusion
- Facilitated diffusion
- Diffusion through channels
Types of channels used during facilitated diffusion
Transmem proteins have binding sites for specific particles & binding occurs one side at a time, protein changes conformation, releases particle, now is open to other side
When would concentration gradient (delta C) no longer increase, causing a limit to speed of flux?
When all carriers are saturated (busy carriers)
Pump functions as:
- transporter (of solutes)
- & enzyme (brks down ATP)
Type of transport which uses energy from a high energy compound (pump brks down ATP by hydrolysis)
Primary active transport
Type of transport that uses potential energy stored in conc gradient (no brkdn of ATP)
Secondary active transport
Energy to drive pump comes from an ion diffusing down its conc gradient
Secondary Active Transport
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