Physiology Exam 1 (Part 3)

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Physiology Exam 1 (Part 3)
2011-09-15 19:37:57
Physiology Exam Part

Physiology Exam 1 (Part 3) Metabolism
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  1. Energy from ATP rxns is used for: (3)
    • Cellular mvmt
    • Molecular synthesis
    • Transport across membranes
  2. Process of transferring a P group from one molec to another under anaerobic conditions in cytoplasm
    Substrate level phophorylation
  3. Producing ATP under aerobic conditions
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  4. Glycolysis produces molecs:
    Glycolysis produces energy:
    • 2 pyruvate molecs
    • 2 ATP, 2 NADH
  5. Pyruvate is used to make _____ if there is low oxygen availability (allows recycling of NADH)
  6. Conversion of lactate to glucose in liver
    Cori cycle
  7. 2 pyruvates from glycolysis go on to make:
    2 acetyl CoA and 2 NADH
  8. Kreb's cycle & oxidative phosphorylation occur in:
  9. Site of electron transport chain
    Inner membrane of mitochondria
  10. Chemiosmotic Coupling
    H+ is actively pumped from inside to outside, which causes H+ to flow back in (down conc gradient). Creates harvestable energy which is used to make ATP.
  11. What is the ATP production of the following electron donors?
    • 2.5 ATP
    • 1.5 ATP
  12. What is the % efficiency of glucose oxidation?
  13. How are lipids catabolized?
    Triglyceride is broken into Glycerol and 3 Free Fatty Acids

    Glycerol ==> glycolysis

    3 FFA ==> Beta oxidation --> acetyl coA --> kreb's cycle
  14. Removes 2 carbon pieces (acetyl groups) from FAs and converts them to acetyl coA
    Beta Oxidation
  15. 16 carbon FA makes ___ acetyl coA
  16. Substrates used to synthesis new glucose (glyconeogenesis)
    • Glycerol
    • Lactate
    • Amino acids (last resort)
  17. Site of gluconeogenesis
    Liver, small extent in kidneys
  18. Adipose cells
  19. Energy to raise temp of 1g of water 1 degree C
  20. kcal = ___ calories
  21. Why transport is important (3)
    • Obtaining O2 and nutrients
    • Removing waste products
    • Sending signals
  22. Is more highly concentrated in ICF or ECF?
    • K+ (ICF)
    • Na+ (ECF)
    • Cl- (ECF)
    • Glucose (ECF)
  23. What is transported across mem easily?
    • Nonpolar & small molecs
    • (ex: O2, CO2, FAs)
  24. What can't pass through mem easily?
    • Polar molecs & ions
    • (ex: glucose, proteins, Na+, water)
  25. Type of driving force that depends on concentration of atom/molec
    Chemical driving force
  26. Type driving force depends on charges
  27. Electrical driving force is called
    Membrane potential (Vm)
  28. Membrane potential is measured in:
  29. Membrane potential when elec force equals chem force
    Equilibrium Potential
  30. Resting membrane potential is b/w __ and __ millivolts
    -50 to -70
  31. Rate of particles crossing membrane
  32. 3 types passive mem transport
    • Simple diffusion
    • Facilitated diffusion
    • Diffusion through channels
  33. Types of channels used during facilitated diffusion
    • Aquaporins
    • Ion channels
  34. Carrier-facilitated diffusion
    Transmem proteins have binding sites for specific particles & binding occurs one side at a time, protein changes conformation, releases particle, now is open to other side
  35. When would concentration gradient (delta C) no longer increase, causing a limit to speed of flux?
    When all carriers are saturated (busy carriers)
  36. Pump functions as:
    • transporter (of solutes)
    • & enzyme (brks down ATP)
  37. Type of transport which uses energy from a high energy compound (pump brks down ATP by hydrolysis)
    Primary active transport
  38. Type of transport that uses potential energy stored in conc gradient (no brkdn of ATP)
    Secondary active transport
  39. Energy to drive pump comes from an ion diffusing down its conc gradient
    Secondary Active Transport