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  1. What are the major currents of North America
    Gulf stream; Straits of Yucatan; loop current; straits of Florida; West Gulf.
  2. What is the Gulf Stream?
    Current that flows from south to north along east coast; when it reaches cape cod Mass., it tend to veer east toward Europe
  3. What intersects the Gulf stream?
    A cold current coming from the north and the Straits of Florida from the south
  4. What are the Straits of Florida?
    Current that flows from out of the Gulf of Mexico between Florida and Cuba to the major current. It is fast and strong
  5. What is the loop?
    Current within the gulf of Mexico
  6. Gulf of Mexico
    Mississippi river, Rio grand yucatan penninsula, cuba and florida
  7. What is the STRAITS of YUCATAN
    Between yucatan penninsula and cuba-strong(black)
  8. West Gulf(blue dotted)
    usually current going S--> N can rejoin loop current, but in winter it can reverse-depends on weather and miss. River
  9. What is the name of the area where the West Gulf Current splits?
    big shell and little shell-its unpredictable
  10. What are Gyres?
    LARE SCALE GYRES-big scale patterns ex If follow Gulf stream-to europe, down africa then back on up
  11. Smaller Eddies
    Loop current is notorious for forming them; it is what kept oil more concentrated instead of spreading down to cuba ; can also trap trash and garbage
  12. California current
    • runs from N=> S
    • Water quite cold
    • So fauna is different than in warm water of gulf-DUH!
  13. Ekman spiral:
    • Caused by Coriolis force causes current to reverse at depth
    • N hemi=East coast S->N; W coast N->S
    • At equator, things reverse-at places can sea water in bucket spiraling in opposite directions b/c coriolis forces
    • If wind blows from sea to land, can cause a vacuum=> deep cold water moving up
    • Occurs in California-especially in August
    • Typically occurs on west coasts
    • Have it in place where currents meant
    • GOOD FOR FIHSING-brings up nutrients=>little fish=>BIG fish
  15. Carolinean fauna
    • N. Gulf, temperate waters; discontinuous: N. Carolina to N. Florida, Gulf of Mexico from NW Florida to NE mexico
    • See: blue crab, oysters, white shimp, whelks
    • Typically default fauna of TX, b/c can survive cold and mud etc
    • Due to sea way over Florida in past
  16. Caribbean Fauna
    • To south, coral reefs, mangroove swamps
    • Confined to areas that are warm, clear and nice
    • Cribbean coral reef fauna has genera and families in common with other tropical areas that are seperated from it now
    • Corals, some fishes( angel fishes, damsel fishes), cone shells, etc
    • Ex. May see different species, same families in florida, red sea etc
  17. Tethyan distribution
    • World-wide tropical distribution with fossils to early mesozoic era-200 mill years ago now divided up
    • Part of Caribbean fauna???
    probably invaded N. Atlantic across the arctic-North pacific cold water has tons of things that are only found there
  19. Plankton
    Organisms in the H2O, cannot swim against current from Greek: to wander/move around
  20. Plankton sizes
    Nano-; micro-; macro-; megaplankton
  21. Nannoplankton:
    microns, bacteria etc-COMMON in poluted water
  22. Microplankton:
    .1 mm or so, tiny algae
  23. Macroplankton:
    1-10 mm [size usually sampled]
  24. Megaplankton:
    • bigger (medusae(jelly fish) etc)
    • when collecting Need to know:
    • what size you want to collect=> avoid clogging
  25. Some sampling methods
    Water pump; water bottle; net; continuous plankton recorder
  26. H2O bottle
    -one time sample, wont get megaplankton, may get lots or very little
  27. Net:
    mesh size (2mm)=> catch macro or mega plankton
  28. Continuous plankton recorder
    • Collects and preserves plankton on mesh and keeps roll of mesh in preservative but Have to choose mesh size & it squishes the things it collects then Later Count organisms
    • Computer program recognizes certain shape=> you only have to count orgs with weird shape
  29. Phytoplankton:
    • photosynthesis: take up CO2
    • Bases of oceanic food chain in many areas
    • Trophic level
  30. Remember, metabolic isn't perfect-10% energy transfer
    Ex 1,000,000 lbs of phyto plankton: Primary producers (1o)=> 100,000 lbs of Primary consumers (copepods)=> 10000lbs of secondary consumers (2o)[small fish]=> 1000 lbs of thrird degree (mackerel)=> 100 lbs of fourth degree consumers(tuna)=> 10 lbs of 5o consumers=> 6th degree consumer(killer whale or great white)
  31. Types of plankton
    • Diatoms-case(frustule) of silicon dioxide (SiO2)
    • Shaped live petri dish-upper and lower lid
    • 2 general shape: centric=round pennate=elongate
    • Can have asexual reproduction produce resting stage, sexually reproduction seasonally
    • Have flagella, spin, can have small plates or naked; Can be toxic: RED TIDE =>Get massive fish kills
    • Reason why can't eat shellfish in different times in CA Shapes:
    • Many different
    • Ceratium-having horns
    • Noctiluca-night light
    • Some have bioluminescence
  33. Primary Productivity
    • Incorporation of CO2 into useable carbon compounds
    • Seasonal according to light, temperature and sufficient nutrients
    • In poles, only get bloom in summer cue to temperature
    • Others=peaks at may and october
    • Tropics-no rain season=frequently
    • Photo plankton believed to produce about 1/2 net 1o production world wide
  34. Measuring 1o
    Count cells; satellite; C14 method; chlorophyll reflects lightl light-dark bottle
  35. Satellite measurements
    • Only measures at surface so if clear day, may miss lot of plankton bellow
    • Chlorophyll reflects light
  36. C14 method
    incorporation rate of C into cells in lab
  37. Light-dark bottle technique
    • 2 bottles of same volume with plankton sample: 1 clear and 1 dark
    • Measure oxygen in each
    • Photosynthesis in light bottle=> oxygen produced
    • Respiration in dark bottle=> uses oxygen
    • Light bottle measurement at end-dark bottle=net primary production
    • Allows counting of chlorophyll
    causes O2 bubble
  39. Zooplankton
    Primary consumers, eat phytoplankton=>lag time after phyto bloom b4 their bloom
  40. Alternate food loop
    • Dead phyto, zooplankton, fishes etc sink & decompose by action of bacteria
    • bacteria eaten by one-celled organisms(protozoan)
    • Zooplankton eat protozoans
  41. Types of protozoans
    Ciliates radiolarians and foraminiferans
  42. Ciliates, radiolarians
    (shells of SiO2); Radiolarians look like Christmas bells; fragile and difficult to preserve for viewing-have Pseudopods
  43. foraminiferans(forams)
    • Shells of CaCO3; picky about environment: salinity etc
    • Feed like venus fly trap etc
    • Only about 1 mm across
  44. Zooplankton Types;
    Holoplankton; Meroplankton; copepods; Trocophore; barnacle nauplius; meroplankton
  45. Holoplankton
    • Entire life cycle in water column-most phytoplankton and copepods aka always plankton and only plankton
    • Arrow worm (phylum Chaetognatha-{keytonath})-Eat copepod by detecting vibration caused by copepod movement
  46. Meroplankton
    • Larval stages or juveniles in water but adults on sea floor or actively swim
    • Adult to corresponding larvae isn't known all the time-may find larvae but not know what adult looks like
    • Most zooplankton, except copepods are these
  47. Copepods
    • Most common zooplankton; Has only one eye, antennae ; Many eat diatoms(most common photoplankton); Everything is eating them
    • Sensitive to oil pollution
    • Larval stage: nauplius
  48. Trochophore
    • Larva of worm or some mollusles ie slipper shell
    • Resemble ciliated”tops”
    • Most are meroplanktonic with non-planktonic adult stage
  49. Barnacle nauplius
    Looks like copepod but has horns
  50. Nauplius
    Exclusive to arthropods-represent first larval stage of barnaclas, crabs, shrimp, copepods etc
  51. Meroplankton
    • Veliger of clam or snail
    • Will eventually settle on sea floor
  52. HOW to stay AFLOAT
    • Very small animals or cells don't sink much
    • Larger animals: avoid sinking by:
    • Being flat; Containing gasses or oils ;Few hard parts; Large surface area; Gelatinous
  53. OCEAN SURFACE organisms
    Called NEUSTON-Man of War; Sea penny, by wind sailor; anthina; Sargassum organisms
  54. Anthina
    • Snail that eats man of war and wind sailor
    • Purple tint due to eating them
    • Lays egg inbubbles
  55. Sargassum seaweed
    • Has Floats, reproduces asexually
    • Will find small organisms that grow on seaweed-look like frosting eaten by: sargassum shrimp, nutibranch, crab
  56. sargassum crab (Portunus)
    Fingerlength, mean
  57. Sargassum fish (histrio)-cannabilistic
    • Mouth opens to width of body
    • GLOMPS
    • Lives among seaweed
  58. Nekton:
    • actively swimming animals in water column
    • All vertebrated and cordated
    • Tail; gills; Usually have eyes; Seperated by amphioxis b/c fish have definite head and brain
  59. 3 classes of Nekton
    agnatha, chondrichtlyes; Osteichthyes
  60. Agnatha
    Many fossils, but few living species-no jaws, simplified brains; look like eel/snake
  61. Hagfish:
    Agnatha class; scavenger, extremely slime 500-600m
  62. Lampreys
    Agnatha class =Eel like; Sucking mouth disk with teeth and rasp flesh from larger fishes and marine mammals
  63. Chondrichtlyes
    • Fish class containing Cartilaginous fishes-sharks and rays [Only place with CaCO3 is the teeth=>not much fossils]
    • Many gill opening, tough skin
    • Side/lateral fins are fixed=> move like jet plane-no small adjustments
    • Sexually diamorphic-Male has claspers
  64. Predators Chondrichtlyes
    • great white shark, eats fishes, marine animals-migratory
    • TIGER &bull Sharks-Do come closer to shore; eatSea turtles etc
  65. Bottom feeder Chondrichtlyes
    Horn shark, rays-crush prey-Do the shuffle!
  66. Plankton feeders Chondrichtlyes
    • Whale and basking sharks-Harmless to people-they're 25+ feet and really don't care
    • Whale are spoted
    • Basking sharks just open their mouths-they have raking system in their mouths
    • Bonnet head-Caught in Port A frequently
  67. Osteichthyes
    • Bony fishes; CaCO3 bone, 1 gil opening; can have scales
    • New species found all the time
  68. Open water species Osteichthyes=pelagic
    • Streamline: fast and tend to be torpedo shaped; Lunate (cresent moon) tail; narrow body and fins; effient physiology Retain body heat-transferred in gills; Have myoglobin in flesh; Swim bladder can have fats and oils EXAMPLES-Tunas, jacks, wahoos, marlins. Mahi-mahi
    • Planktonic fish larvae
    • Ocean sunfish(Mola)
  69. Reef fishes Osteichthys
    • Any fish fear rocks, corals, shipwrecks; Often can hide, dart into holes
    • Fins are paddle-shaped;Body not as narrow or streamlined
  70. Damsel fish
    Territorial -Male guards eggs;Crate nests;Often brightly colored;Male funs female off after female lays eggs
  71. Sergeant major in TX
    Will beat up other fish
  72. Sea bass or grouper family
    • Gulp prey whole
    • Eels can have lateral fins
  73. Demersal fishes
    • Move on and off sea floor-flat bentral surfac
    • Flat fishes start as upright larva, 1 eye migrates to side; lie outside
    • Halibut-largest get to be 8 ft long
    • PLAICE-type of fish that can blend-able to change color and do poka dots but no checkerboards
  74. Cat fishes
    Have sensory whiskers
  75. Compensation depth
    • -where photosynthesis=respiration;Varies in different area due to murkiness ex some prt of Galv:6 inches and parts of open ocean 6K ft
    • Below this depth, there may be faint light Vs NO detectable light at aphotic zone-also varies
  76. Temperature and depth
    Generally water is warmer at surface especially at Gulf(22C)]; Thermocline usually present-In Gulf of Mexico-usually has BIG one 1000m
  77. Oxygen
    • Mixing between water is minimal=> OXYGEN minimum zone
    • Usually more oxygen above and below O2 minimum zone b/c Above-waves; below-coreolus effect and currents
    • Mixing=> NO stratification Port A is too shallow for Stratification
  78. Stratifcation
    No mixing across thermocline=>layering of water "Stratification"
  79. Effect of DISTANCE from LAND
    • Farther from land=> less nutrients=>less diatoms; Also matters how big land is
    • Primary production from photosynthesis is much less at distance=>Microbial loop is more important
    • b/c bacteria have proteins-some may be toxic but lots that decompose things are covered in protein and thus become energy rich food snack for small organisms
  80. what happens Below compensation depth/above if minimal primary productivity
    Dinoflagellates can be heterotrophs-They can be photosynthetic, then glomp onto bacteria when not enough light then go back again when light
  81. Adaptations to midwater life
    • Few or weak hard parts-almost gelatinous;If swim, tend to do so in pulses exJelly fish: flap, glide, flap, glide
    • Can have myoglobin in tissues exJelly fish-myoglobin retains O2 and makes sturdier
    • Eyes present or not-If present, can be peculiar; Big bug eyes, eyes on stalk; disproportionate eye size; Some may have no eye lid
    • May use fats in body for buoyancy or secrete gasses
    • Can have extensive sense organs-Lateral line in fish is capable o sensing changes in pressure
  82. Catching & keeping food midwater zone
    • Sharp teeth ;Big mouth&large stomach exPELICAN EEL aka GULPER eel;
    • Lures-Angler fish
    • Fishes and some fish have photospores-light organs:If animal at bottom end of photozone-camifloage; Breaks up outline of critter=>think 1 fish is many
    • Bioluminescence also used forCourtship; Lure; Luminous cloud ex Shirmp-expell bacteria=> act like somke screen of color
    • Lighted body(not due to photospores) rather caused by Ca reaction
  83. Under water fish concentrations
    • Dense concentration of fishes, shrimp and jellies at O@ minimum zone;May reflected by gas
    • Sonar learned to distinguish between things and hard object;
    • Soft and squishy=> not a good food source for humans despite dreamers ideas
  84. Vertical migration
    • Move up at night, down by day
    • Most animals stay within certain depth
    • Ladder of migration
    • Passive sinking of food
    • Diatom at surface dies,sinks and is decomposed by bacteria deeper
    • This sinks and eaten by small creature; sinks; lag time at O2 minimum zone
    • Always a lag time there due to density etc
    • Passes through minimum zone and later re-eaten; deficated and eventually hits sea floor
    • Spend time mostly in midlevel-possible that juvenile are higher, but don't know b/c can't always match
    • Eventually sink to sea floor
    • Some species of deep sea are only known due to stomachs of other animals
    • Prince of montico would go to commercial whalers and have his servants take out stomachs and look at squids that have never been seen by humans
    • Don't really know parasites

    • Salinity of normal SW
    • 35ppt
  85. Salinity of hypersaline
  86. Salinity of hyposaline
  87. Composition of Sea Water
    • Has NaCl, Mg, P and other compounds
    • Nutrients(salts)needed for algal and plant growth
    • Nitrates(NO3-) can be limiting b/c low concetrations far from shore
    • Occurs most on land b/c nitrogen fixation provides it
    • Phosphates(PO42-)-limiint
    • Silicates-diatoms-food
    • Carbonates-shells and bones
    • ~Essential for coral growth
    • ~Affected by acids and low temperature
  88. Thermocline
    Abrupt change in temperature
  89. Dangers for humans-depth
    Coming up gas pressure lessens=> air breather must decompress 2ft/sec or else gas will bubble in tissue=BAD
  90. Selective absorption of wavelengths
    red light lost first blue last
  91. How is energy used?
    basic metabolism, growth, reproduction
    locomotion, care of young& advanced/complicated nervous system(brain/spinal cord); active transport
  93. Open Sea environment
    • Stable environment-Areas without large rivers or bays =>Most organisms here either can't deal with change or only able to adjust to gradual change-ie seasonal migration
    • Many animals rely on diffusion for metabolic process: respiration, excretion
  94. Living in water
    • Organism must have high surface area to volume ratio=THIN&FLAT
    • Rely on H2O for body support; some have "hydrostatic skeleton"
    • Can be gelatinous-water keeps it up-JELLY FISH(medusae)
    • Usually sufficeint free O2: use gills, diffusion, Aerobic respiration
  95. Low or anoxic situations:
    anaerobic respiration, lactic acid cycleBacteria often times, water can be crystal clear b/c nothing can really survive in anoxic water
  96. Sessile
    • Attached to surface;Body is highly reduced-internal organs don't consist of much
    • Has complex feeding apparatus but that’s pretty much it
    • Ex Tunicates-Sea squirt
    • In larval state-has fish like appearance before it looses vetebral column etc when they settle down
    • Have to look very carefully to learn they are animals vs plant
  97. Reproduction
    Many SW plants and Animals rely on SW for reproduction
  98. External fertilization:
    • release gametes in H2OOther animals eat the caviar-if see them spawning, expect to see larger animals swimming above and eating
    • Embryo forms, larval stage-free in water or in egg case
    • Can gave intiferrt but release juveniles or larvae
    • Larval stages or other stages carried by currents deisperse the spawn
    • Lots of interdependence
    • Land has more species due to insects
    • Oceans have more phial taxis etc-much older even if less diverse
Card Set:
2011-09-16 06:29:05
marine biology plankton fish

marine exam1
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