Chemistry key terms ch 2
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It is many of the plastics and synthetic fibers in every day life
A polymer (plastic) contains hundreds or even thousands of these smaller constituent molecules called monomers
the carbon atoms are linked otgether in a long chain
the number of protons in a particular atom that identifies the element.
atoms of the same element that have different numbers or neutrons
the combined totalof protons and neutrons
the percentage of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of an element that consists of specified isotope.
an atom or group of atoms with a net electrical charge
an ion derived from a single atom
when groups of atoms carry a charge they are called polyatomic ions
Negatively charged ions
an ion with more protons than electrons has a positive charge and is called a cation
attractive force between two atoms holding them together to form a molecule or part of a molecule
is a pure substance made up of atoms of two or more elements joined togheter by a chemical bond
atoms combin to form discrete particles
describes a compound in terms of its constituent (being a part of a whole) elemements
a compound is a kind of parts list that describes the atomic composition of a molecule efficiently
tells us only the relative ratio between the nmbers of atoms of the different elements present
some compounds are composed of collections of oppositely charged ions that form an extended array called a lattice.
the bonding in lattice compounds is called ionic bonding
the smallest whole number ratio of anions and cations in an ionic compound
vonding in a solid metal, where the nuclei and some fracction of their electron comprise a positively chared "core" localized these lattice points, and valence electrons from a surrounding "sea" of negative charge
attractive force resulting from the sharing of electrons between pairs of atoms
- the elements in the far left hand column
- Li -- lithium
- Na -- sodium
- K -- potassium
- Rb -- rubidium
- Cs -- caesium
- Be -- beryllium
- Mg -- magnesium
- Ca -- calcium
- Sr -- strontium
- Ba -- bariium
Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
Classifcations on the periodic table of elements
the study of compounds of the element carbon
an arrangement of atoms
it is the simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons, molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
the naming process for molecules
- Compounds that contain only two elemements are called binary compounds.
- i.e. Fe203
a group of atoms that carries an electrical charge
there is, however, a system for polyatomic anions that contain oxygen and one other element, oxyanions
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