Chemistry key terms ch 2

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Chemistry key terms ch 2
2011-09-15 23:38:18
key terms

ch2 key terms
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  1. polymers
    It is many of the plastics and synthetic fibers in every day life
  2. monomers
    A polymer (plastic) contains hundreds or even thousands of these smaller constituent molecules called monomers
  3. polymer backbone
    the carbon atoms are linked otgether in a long chain
  4. atomic number
    the number of protons in a particular atom that identifies the element.
  5. isotopes
    atoms of the same element that have different numbers or neutrons
  6. mass number
    the combined totalof protons and neutrons
  7. isotopic abundances
    the percentage of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of an element that consists of specified isotope.
  8. ion
    an atom or group of atoms with a net electrical charge
  9. monatomic ion
    an ion derived from a single atom
  10. polyatomic ions
    when groups of atoms carry a charge they are called polyatomic ions
  11. anions
    Negatively charged ions
  12. cation
    an ion with more protons than electrons has a positive charge and is called a cation
  13. Chemical bond
    attractive force between two atoms holding them together to form a molecule or part of a molecule
  14. Chemical compound
    is a pure substance made up of atoms of two or more elements joined togheter by a chemical bond
  15. Molecules
    atoms combin to form discrete particles
  16. Chemical formula
    describes a compound in terms of its constituent (being a part of a whole) elemements
  17. molecular formula
    a compound is a kind of parts list that describes the atomic composition of a molecule efficiently
  18. empirical formula
    tells us only the relative ratio between the nmbers of atoms of the different elements present
  19. lattice
    some compounds are composed of collections of oppositely charged ions that form an extended array called a lattice.
  20. ionic bonding
    the bonding in lattice compounds is called ionic bonding
  21. formula unit
    the smallest whole number ratio of anions and cations in an ionic compound
  22. metallic bonding
    vonding in a solid metal, where the nuclei and some fracction of their electron comprise a positively chared "core" localized these lattice points, and valence electrons from a surrounding "sea" of negative charge
  23. Covalent bonds
    attractive force resulting from the sharing of electrons between pairs of atoms
  24. alkali metals
    • the elements in the far left hand column
    • Li -- lithium
    • Na -- sodium
    • K -- potassium
    • Rb -- rubidium
    • Cs -- caesium
  25. alkaline earths
    • Be -- beryllium
    • Mg -- magnesium
    • Ca -- calcium
    • Sr -- strontium
    • Ba -- bariium
  26. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
    Classifcations on the periodic table of elements
  27. organic chemimestry
    the study of compounds of the element carbon
  28. functional group
    an arrangement of atoms
  29. hydrocarbons
    it is the simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons, molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  30. Chemical nomenclature
    the naming process for molecules
  31. binary compounds
    • Compounds that contain only two elemements are called binary compounds.
    • i.e. Fe203
  32. polyatomic ions
    a group of atoms that carries an electrical charge
  33. oxyanions
    there is, however, a system for polyatomic anions that contain oxygen and one other element, oxyanions