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2011-09-15 23:37:34
Chapter research methods


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  1. -A detailed description of a particular individual based
    -careful observation or formal psychological testing
    -developmental, longitudinal procedure
    - Illustrate psychological principles in a way that abstract generalizations and cold statistics never can
    -- Information is often missing or hard to interpret
    -- Person may be unrepresentative of the group the researcher is interested in
    --time consuming
    Case study
  2. -The researcher observes, measures, and records behavior,
    -avoids intruding on the people (or animals) being observed
    --cant tell what ppl thk or feel
    --cause cannot b conclusively identified
    Observational studies
  3. -Typically require people to answer a series of written or oral questions
  4. procedures for measuring an evaluation personality traits, emotions, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values
    Psychological test (assessment instruments)
  5. inventories, measure beliefs, feelings, or behaviors which an individual is aware
    Objective tests
  6. designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives
    Projective tests
  7. uniform procedures exist for giving and scoring the test
    Standardized test-
  8. must produce the same results from one time and place to the next or from one scorer to another
  9. by giving the test twice to the same group of people and comparing the two sets of scores statistically
    test-retest reliability
  10. by giving different versions of the same test to the same group on two separate occasions
    alternate-forms reliability
  11. it must measure what it sets out to measure
  12. If the items broadly represent the trait in question
    content validity
  13. the ability to predict independent measures, or criterion, of the trait in question
    criterion validity
  14. -Questionnaires and interviews that gather information by asking people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions
    -Produce bushels of data,
    --not easy to do well
  15. -Psychologist often want to know whether two or more phenomena are related
    --cant tell cause and effect
    --relationships may be coincidental
    correlational study
  16. anything that can be measured, rated, or scored
  17. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other
    and vice versa
    positive correlation
  18. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
    negative correlation
  19. -The statistic used to express a correlation
    -this number conveys both the size of the correlations and its direction
    coefficient of correlation
  20. apparent associations between two things that are not really related
    illusory correlations
  21. -allows the researcher to control and manipulate the situation being studied
    -formulates cause and effect
    --maybe unethical
    --may not be natural
  22. experimental situation manipulated or varied by the researcher
    independent variable
  23. the behavior that the researcher tries to predict
    dependent variable
  24. a fake treatment or sugar pill that looks, tastes, or smells like the real treatment or medication, but is phony
  25. participants arent exposed to the same treatment as as the experimental group
    control group
  26. Participants should not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group
    single blind study
  27. unintended changes in a study participants’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter
    Experimental effects
  28. the person running the experiment, the one having actual contact with the participants, also does not know who is in which group until the data have been gathered4
    Double-blind study
  29. the careful study of behavior in natural contexts such as schools and the workplace
    Field research