Chap 3_ Thorax.txt

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  1. The Thorax
    • Thoracic cage : chamber where O2 & CO2 are exchanged
    • Consists of: thoracic skeleton, diaphragm, associated musculature
    • Location of: heart, major blood vessels, trachea, lungs, bronchi & mediastinum
  2. Description of ribs - 12 ribs
    • 1st - 7th pairs join at the sternum
    • 8th - 10th pairs join the cariledge at the 7th rib at inferior margin of the sternum
    • 11th - 12th ribs are the floating ribs & have no anterior attachments
  3. The sternum is made of '3' sections?
    • Manubrium: superior portion of the sternum, medial endpoint of the clavicle & 1st rib
    • Body of the sternum: angle of Louis,
    • Xiphoid process: inferior portion of the sternum
  4. What is the clinical significance of the angle of Louis?
    Attachment of the second rib & the landmark for the second intercostal space - needle decompression of the chest for a tension pneumothorax
  5. Image of the rib cage
    Image Upload 1
  6. What is the diaphragm?
    * Muscular domelike structure that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

    * Major muscle of respiration

    * Contracting & moving downward during inspiration

    * Relaxing & moving upward during expiration
  7. Illustration of Diaphramatic Breathing
    Image Upload 2
  8. What are the major muscles of breathing?
    • Intercostal muscles
    • Diaphragm
    • Sternocleidomastoid muscles
  9. What happens to systolic BP & HR during inspiration?
    Systolic BP & HR decrease
  10. What happens to BP & HR during expiration?
    Systolic BP & HR rise
  11. What accessory muscles are used during respiration?
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Scalene muscles of the neck - inspiration
    • Anterior abdominal muscles - expiration
  12. What is the pulmonary hilum?
    Central medial region of the lung where the bronchi & pulmonary vasculature enter the lung
  13. How many lobes does the right have?
    • three lobes
    • * upper lobe
    • * middle lobe
    • * lower lobe
  14. How many lobes does the left lung have?
    • 2 lobes
    • * upper lobe
    • * lower lobe
Card Set
Chap 3_ Thorax.txt
A&P Thorax
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