Patho Unit 1

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  1. cell proliferation
    increasing # of cell ny mitosis
  2. cell differentiation
    cell bocomes more specialized in structure & function
  3. growth factors
    • proteins that drive proliferation of remnants of injured parenchymal cells, vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts
    • hormone-like proteins increase cell size & division
    • regulate inflammatory process
    • chemoattractants
    • generation of ECM
  4. progenitor cells
    cells of specialized groups that have not diferentiated to the extent they lose ability to divide
  5. Cell cycle G1
    post-mitotic phase DNA synthesis stops & RNA and protein synthesis & cell growth occurs
  6. cell cycle S
    • DNA synthesis
    • 2 sets of chromosomes formed
  7. cell cycle G2
    • premitotic phase
    • RNA & protein made
  8. interphase
    G1, S, G2
  9. cell cycle M
    mitosis; nuclear division
  10. cell cycle G0
    • mitoticaly quiescent
    • resting state
    • may reenter cycle response to extracellular nutrients, growth factors, hormones, blood loss,
    • highly differentiated cells remain in G0
  11. cyclins
    proteins control entry & progression through cell cycle
  12. cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)
    cyclin activated proteins that phosphorylate proteins
  13. labile tissues
    • continuously dividing
    • epithelial, bone marrow
  14. stabile tissues
    • normally stop dividing when growth stops
    • can regenerate with stimulus
    • liver, vascular
  15. permanent tissues
    do not proliferate; nerve, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
  16. stem cells
    reserve cells that ramain quiescent until need for replenishment
  17. stem cell self renewal
    undergo numerous mitosis & keep undifferentiated state
  18. stem cell asymmetric replication
    after each cell division some cell specialize & others stay undifferentiated
  19. totipotent stem cells
    produced by fertilized ovum
  20. pluripotent stem cells
    differentiate into 3 layers of embryo
  21. multipotent stem cells
    hematopoetic cells
  22. unipotent stem cells
    • produce one cell type
    • retain self-renewal
  23. embryonic stem cells
    • pluirpotent from blastocyst in embryo;
    • generate multiple cell lines
  24. adult stem cells
    generate multiple cell lines from bone marrow
Card Set
Patho Unit 1
chapter 4
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