MicroAnatomyMini1Part1.txt

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pandachowmein
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102143
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MicroAnatomyMini1Part1.txt
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2011-09-17 16:22:39
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MicroAnatomy Mini1 Part1
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MicroAnatomy Mini1 Part1
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  1. Characteristics of Pro/Eur Karyote
    • Prokaryote - no membrane bound organelle, cell wall
    • Eurkaryote - membrane only, no cell wall
  2. Methods to target prokaryote for Abx
    • target organelles with no eukaryote analog (cell wall)
    • target organelles that's changed in time (ribosome)
    • Mitochondria ribosomes are suspetable to Abx
  3. Membrane composition
    • 50% total lipid are cholesteral
    • 50% lipid are phospholipids
    • 50% weight protein
    • 50% weight lipid
  4. Phospholipid composition
    • Head - ethanlolimin (or other sphingolipid)
    • Phosphate linker
    • Glycerol + 2xFatty acid tail (acylglyceride)
  5. Cholesterol
    - composition
    - function
    - factory
    • Polar head ->steriod rings->none polar hydrocarbon tail
    • membrane packing to prevent small molecule leakage; decrease fluidity of plasma membrane
    • made in ER - transported by vessicles
  6. Membrane fluidity
    - contributing molecues
    • Saturated lipids - decrease fluidity
    • unsaturated lipids - increase fluidity
    • cholesterol - decrease fluidity
  7. Integral protein
    - definiation
    - type
    • Requires detergent for removal
    • partial penetration (caveolin) very rare
    • anchored to membrane (GPI anchors)
    • Transmembrane (~20 aa for regular ~25 aa for lipid raft)
  8. Cytoplasmic content
    -other than proteins i guess
    • fat droplets (from ER)
    • glycogen (for carb storage)
    • lipofusion - undigestable materials in lysosome
  9. Intermediate Filiments (IF)
    -type
    -function
    -composition
    -special types
    • 5 subtypes
    • Keritin/Epithelium || Vimetin/Mesenchymal cells || Desmin/muscle cells || Gilial fibrillary/Gilial cells || Neurofiliment/Neurons
    • Nuclear Lamina - holds chromatids/structure - networked
    • Keritin - strength - dimers weaved together - hair and nails
    • Medium sized and makes cystin disulfide bonds
  10. Microtubles growth strategy
    • + side grows --> GTP bound
    • + side falls off --> hydrolysed GTP
    • - side stays stable
  11. Centreoles and basal bodies
    • MT neg end structures
    • centreoles bind to microtubles through gamma tubulin
    • basal bodies grows into cilia and flagella
  12. 9/2 formation
    microtubulin cilia and flagella temrina structure. 9 sets of 2 microtubuly
  13. Dynein and kinesin
    • Dynein, movement towards NEG terminal of MT annnnnnnd flagella movement through rythmic contraction
    • Kinesin, movement towards POS terminal of MT
  14. Actin
    -size
    - function
    - growth strategy
    • Biggest filliment
    • Stabilization of cell membranes (plasma membrane and nuclear membrane as lamins)
    • Grows on POS terminal (ATP bound F-actin)
    • Falls off on NEG terminal (ATP less G-actin)
    • exhibits treadmilling
  15. Lamins
    • Actin network under nuclear envelope
    • Phosphorylation breaks it apart
    • Dephosphorylation reforms it
  16. Spectrin
    RBC supportnet work bound to actin
  17. Taxol
    • Cancer drug
    • Prevent cell division through the stabilization of microtubules thus preventing spindle formation
  18. Centromere analog for actin
    • ARP - attached to plasma membrane
    • starts the process of free G-actin binding on the side of the active actin chain
  19. Myosin
    • Actin associated protein - regulartory
    • see muscles
  20. Mono nucleaus vs poly
    • most have 1
    • muscles has multiple and RBC has none
  21. 8 histones and 1 linker
    • makes the nucleosome
    • H2A, H2B, H3, H4 + H1 linker
  22. Heterochromatiin
    Condensed none transcribed DNA
  23. EUCHROMATIN
    Active unbound trancribed DNA
  24. Nucleoulus
    • newly transcribed rRNA with ribosomal protein
    • forms dark big part of nucleus
  25. Amplified genes
    Multiple copies of the same gene on multiple chromasomes for fast amplification
  26. Chromasome knobs
    • Often contain rRNA on top of serveral chromasomes
    • aggregation of transcription and rRNA protein makes these knobs dark-->nucleolus
  27. Nuclear pore complex
    -what diffuses
    -what transports
    • small molecues freely diffuse <50kDa
    • ATP gets in and out
    • proteins (robosomal proteins) are transported through the pores
  28. NLS NES
    • Nuclear localization sequence - basic sequences, can be mid protein (doesn't have to be N-terminus
    • Nuclear exporting sequence - often found on complete Ribosomes (last AAs are NES)
  29. Importins/Exportins
    - Composition
    - Function
    • NLS/NES recongition sequence
    • destination sequence
    • imports and exports things in and out of nucleus
  30. Ran
    Controls cargo release of the importins and exportins (it releases the cargo inside for importins and vice versa)
  31. Primary function of mitochondria
    oxidative phosphorylation through hydrogen gradient in the inner membrane space
  32. Special organells of the Mito
    • its own DNA (37 genes, 10copies per mito)
    • makes own rRNA tRNA and mRNA (but suese cytoplasmic proteins to complete own ribosome)
    • Cardiolipin
  33. Cardiolipin
    • Biphosphateidylglycerol
    • 2xacyleglyceride bound together to form a 4 tailed phospholipid
    • lipid made by ER but modified in mitochondria
    • stress resistant, leak resistant membrane
  34. Mitocondria proliforation
    independent fission and fusion
  35. Contact sites
    places in the mito membran where its thin enough to import proteins
  36. Cytochrome C
    • Electron transport sub-unit
    • release into cytoplasma activates caspases
  37. Caspases
    • cystine protease - apoptosis mediator
    • eats up Asp c-terminal
    • further cascade see apoptosis
  38. places that degrade
    • Proteosomes - not organelle - protein only
    • Lysosomes - organelle - everything by pH and hydrolase
    • Peroxisomes - organelle - toxin and alcohol
    • smooth ER - organelle - toxin and alcohol
  39. Ubiquitin
    • binds to hydrophobic portions of old protein
    • tagging for proteosome degradation
  40. Lysomsome proton pump
    makes lysosome acid pH ~5 for degradation
  41. Lysosome Special features
    • proton pump
    • transport channels (for AA, sugar, nucleotides)
    • glycoprotein coat for protection
  42. Tay Sach's
    • Lysosomal storage disease
    • hexosaminidase inactivity results in a buildup of glycolipids that can't be digested
    • This kills neurons and results in dimentia
  43. Peroxisomes
    • function
    • location
    • formation
    • detoxifies cells and break down fatty acids
    • mostly in liver and never in neurons
    • Catalase enzyme and H2O2 (from O2 oxidation)

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