Composition of Blood and Principles of Flow

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  1. What is blood composed of?
    • -cellular elements and plasma or liquids
    • -primarily made of water (91.5%)
  2. About how much blood is in the average 70kg adult?
    5000 ml (5 lieters)
  3. What are erythrocytes?
    Red blood cells that are bioconcave discs made up of hemoglobin
  4. What is hemoglobin?
    A protein that contains 4 "Heme" groups that include 1 iron atom in the center
  5. About how many erythrocytes are in a cc of blood?
    4.5-6 million RBCs per cc of blodd
  6. How long do erythorcytes usually "live"? What destroys them and where?
    • 120 days
    • Destroyed by macrophages in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  7. What are leukocytes and about how many are in a cc of blood?
    • White Blood Cells
    • 5,000-10,000 per cc of blood
  8. What are the main functions of leukocytes?
    • Fighting infections
    • Helping the immune responses
    • Body defense
  9. How many types of Granular Leukocytes are there?
  10. What are Neutrophils?
    • Granular leukocytes
    • Vesicles containing chemicals that kill backteria
    • 60-70%
    • 3 lobes
  11. What are eosinophils?
    • Granular leukocytes
    • Increase in number when tehre are allercing reactions and parasitic worm infections
    • 1-4%
    • 2 lobes
  12. What are basophils?
    • Granular leukocytes
    • Granules contain heparin and histamine
    • Less than 1%
    • Irregular nucleus
  13. What are Lymphocytes? Where are they produced? What do they produce?
    • Agranular leukocytes
    • Produced in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland
    • Produce antibodies and antimicrobial chemiclas
    • Have a round nuclei
    • 20-25%
  14. What are Monocytes? What can they become?
    • Have a single horseshoe shaped neucleus
    • Can leave circulation, move into tissues and become macrophages
  15. What are macrophages?
    • Destroy RBCs
    • Capable of specific or non specific immune functions
  16. What are Platelets (Thrombocytes)? How many in a cc of blood?
    • WBC fragments essential for blood clotting process (homeostasis)
    • 150,000-300,000 per cc of blood
  17. What is glucose?
    • Main energy sorce/fuel for the body and ATP production
    • (ATP used for cardiac muscle relaxation)
  18. What are amino acids?
    Building blocks of proteins
  19. What are Lipids?
    • Fats and fatty acids
    • Source of energy
    • Hellp make cell walls
  20. What is choloesterol used for?
    • Used to make hormones such as: Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, Thyroxin, Epinephrine and Cortisol
    • Also an increased risk factor for CAD
  21. What is blood urea nitrogen (BUN)?
    Waste product created from protein metabolism
  22. What is uric acid?
    Urea-waste product cleared by kidneys
  23. What is creatine produced by?
    The break down of muscle tissue
  24. What are electrolytes?
    • Also called salts
    • When dissolved in water tehy become ions such as Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-
    • Used by body and expelled when we don't need them
  25. How much oxygen is attched to hemoglobin and how much is disolved into plasma?
    • 97% attached to hemoglobin
    • 3% dissolved in plasma
  26. About 40-45% of blood is made up of what?
  27. About 5-60% of blood is made up of what?
  28. What is viscosity?
    • Thickness
    • The resistance of blood to flowing-results from intermolecular forces
    • The viscosity of blood varies significantly with hematocrrit/percentage of RBCs in the blood
  29. What is anemia?
    • Less RBCs
    • Less viscosity
    • Blood flow raises easier
  30. What is Polycythemia Vera?
    A disease that results in the overporduction of RBCs that in turn causes blood to thincken, and resist flowing. Excessive transfusion with blood, or Iron overdose can result in similar thickening of the blood.
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Composition of Blood and Principles of Flow

Lecture 3 Part 1
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