About how much blood is in the average 70kg adult?
5000 ml (5 lieters)
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells that are bioconcave discs made up of hemoglobin
What is hemoglobin?
A protein that contains 4 "Heme" groups that include 1 iron atom in the center
About how many erythrocytes are in a cc of blood?
4.5-6 million RBCs per cc of blodd
How long do erythorcytes usually "live"? What destroys them and where?
Destroyed by macrophages in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
What are leukocytes and about how many are in a cc of blood?
White Blood Cells
5,000-10,000 per cc of blood
What are the main functions of leukocytes?
Helping the immune responses
How many types of Granular Leukocytes are there?
What are Neutrophils?
Vesicles containing chemicals that kill backteria
What are eosinophils?
Increase in number when tehre are allercing reactions and parasitic worm infections
What are basophils?
Granules contain heparin and histamine
Less than 1%
What are Lymphocytes? Where are they produced? What do they produce?
Produced in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland
Produce antibodies and antimicrobial chemiclas
Have a round nuclei
What are Monocytes? What can they become?
Have a single horseshoe shaped neucleus
Can leave circulation, move into tissues and become macrophages
What are macrophages?
Capable of specific or non specific immune functions
What are Platelets (Thrombocytes)? How many in a cc of blood?
WBC fragments essential for blood clotting process (homeostasis)
150,000-300,000 per cc of blood
What is glucose?
Main energy sorce/fuel for the body and ATP production
(ATP used for cardiac muscle relaxation)
What are amino acids?
Building blocks of proteins
What are Lipids?
Fats and fatty acids
Source of energy
Hellp make cell walls
What is choloesterol used for?
Used to make hormones such as: Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, Thyroxin, Epinephrine and Cortisol
Also an increased risk factor for CAD
What is blood urea nitrogen (BUN)?
Waste product created from protein metabolism
What is uric acid?
Urea-waste product cleared by kidneys
What is creatine produced by?
The break down of muscle tissue
What are electrolytes?
Also called salts
When dissolved in water tehy become ions such as Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-
Used by body and expelled when we don't need them
How much oxygen is attched to hemoglobin and how much is disolved into plasma?
97% attached to hemoglobin
3% dissolved in plasma
About 40-45% of blood is made up of what?
About 5-60% of blood is made up of what?
What is viscosity?
The resistance of blood to flowing-results from intermolecular forces
The viscosity of blood varies significantly with hematocrrit/percentage of RBCs in the blood
What is anemia?
Blood flow raises easier
What is Polycythemia Vera?
A disease that results in the overporduction of RBCs that in turn causes blood to thincken, and resist flowing. Excessive transfusion with blood, or Iron overdose can result in similar thickening of the blood.