Language & Reading

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
102161
Filename:
Language & Reading
Updated:
2011-09-16 15:36:09
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Language Reading
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for eds 220
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  1. Key components of effective language arts
    • 1. a strong literature, language, and comprehension program (includes balance of oral and written language)
    • 2. an organized, explicit skills program (including phonemic awareness)
    • 3. ongoing diagnosis
    • 4. powerful early intervention that provides individual tutoring for at risk/failing in reading
  2. tradebooks
    • used to swap with others
    • are not decodable
  3. According to the National Reading Panel Report an additional critical instructional component of providing instruction that develops a child's fluency in reading is
    connected text (decodable text)
  4. decodable text
    broken down words to basic sounds
  5. decodable text teaches
    fluency
  6. assessments determine the basis for...
    instruction.
  7. Different types of assessment used at strategic points provide
    information critical to determining what to teach
  8. Characteristics of the assessment component in an effective language arts program are:
    • 1. assessment is used to determine what students need to learn & what teachers need to teach
    • 2. indicators of critical skills & strategies are used to identify at risk students & those in need of special ed
    • 3. ongoing assessment of performance is linked to instruction, curriculum activities, & standards
    • 4. teachers recieve training & support to manage assessment - make quick, focused checks of an individual's progress whie ENGAGED in meaningful work
  9. examples of informal measures
    sight word test and phonemic awareness
  10. Characteristics of instruction in an effective language arts program (K-3)
    • phonemic awareness
    • phonics
    • decoding
    • word-attack skills
    • spelling
    • vocab
    • fluency in reading connected text
    • comprehension skills
    • writing skills & strategies + application
    • listening & speaking skills/strategies
  11. characteristics of instruction in an effective language arts program (4-12) *provides explicit and systematic instruction support in
    • word-attack skills
    • spelling
    • vocab
    • fluency in reading connected text
    • comprehension skills
    • text handling & strategic reading skills
    • writing skills, strategies, & their application
    • listening, speaking skills, & their application
  12. basal readers are missing
    strategic strategies
  13. if students do not progress than do the following:
    • give students instructional support & age appropriate materials delivered explicitly, systematically, and with urgency
    • essential to address foundational skill deficits & accelerate student learning
  14. instructional time
    time allocated for instruction (in part determines opportunities for students to learn)
  15. must be adequate amount of
    • time allocated (2-3hrs) to instruction
    • time must be protected from interuptions
  16. at primary level a minimum of
    2 1/2 hours of instructional time is allocated to language arts instruction daily
  17. 4-8 grade 2 hours of instructional time are
    allocated to language arts instruction daily through core periods or self contained classroom
  18. 9-12 grades: all students participate in a
    minimum of 1 course per semester of language arts instruction
  19. engaged academic time is
    the time students ACTIVELY participate in appropriate tasks
  20. classrooms and school time need to be allocated to
    activities and content highly correlated with essential reading and literacy skills
  21. school extends learning time for all students by
    promoting independent reading outside school in daily at home reading assignments and expectations (i.e. summer reading lists)
  22. vocab must be learned for
    science and math books
  23. improve an effective language arts program if instructional materials incorporate
    • specific strategies
    • teaching/instructional activites
    • procedures
    • examples & opportunities for review & application consistent with current/confirmed
  24. improve an effective language arts program if
    • instructional materials prioritize and sequence essential skills & strategies in a logical, coherent manner
    • demonstrate the relationship between fundamental skills
  25. improve an effective language arts program if instructional materials address or reinforce
    content-area standards in math, science, history, & social science whenever feasible
  26. improve an effective language arts program by support of practice and motivation, students have access
    to a collection of interesting and suitable library books in addition to required texts
  27. instructional programs and materials provide
    specific suggestions for special needs students
  28. effective language arts program if materials for students in grades 4-12 who have reading difficulties align
    with age-appropriate interests and offer systematic practice of needed skills. Materials are available that motivate learner
  29. instructional materials for english learners address the same curricular content and
    give additional emphasis to the structures & systems of english (including phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics)
  30. a validated process is used to select
    both print and electronic instructional materials to promote high levels of achievement for an array of all learners
  31. the purpose of instructional grouping and scheduling is to
    maximize opportunities to learn
  32. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    instruction is provided in
    flexible groupings to maximize student performance
  33. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    use whole group or heterogeneous grouping may be
    used when the objectives are appropriate for the range of learners in the class room
  34. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    homogeneous grouping may be used to
    customize specific instruction for assessed student needs
  35. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    adjust group size and composition to
    reflect student progress & instructional objectives
  36. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    tutoring (peer & adult) is used as
    needed to supplement explicit teacher-delivered instruction
  37. characteristic of instructional grouping & scheduling in an effective program:
    do cross-grade grouping when appropriate to maximize opportunities to tailor instruction to students' performance levels. differences should be
    within one year in kindergarten through 3rd grade, 2 years in 4th-8th, and 3 years in 9-12 grade
  38. centers and independent activites are used
    judiciously and are aligned with instructional goals and objectives focused on achieving grade level standards
  39. all students are expected to meet or exceed the
    grade-level expectations set forth in the english language arts content standards
  40. differentiated instruction aims to
    optimize learning and outcomes for all students by tailoring instruction to meet thiet current level of knowledge & prerequisite skills
  41. students with a wide range of learning needs can be
    expected in almost any classroom
  42. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    students with reading difficulties are provided with
    opportunities for more intensive, systematic teaching and practices to learn the skills & strategies needed fot meeting the standards
  43. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    students in specialized education may need
    further instructional differentiation based on their individualized education programs
  44. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    teachers adapt learning contexts to
    stimulate and extend the proficiency of students who are advanced learners
  45. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    English learners develop proficiency in English and in
    the concepts and skills contained in the english-language arts content standards
  46. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    emphasis is placed on
    instructional reading and writing
  47. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    emphasis is placed on simultaneous instruction in aquisition of
    academic vocabulary & phonological, morphological, and syntactical structures of english already understood by english speakers
  48. differentiated instruction in an effective language arts program:
    teachers adapt instruction for
    students with multiple needs
  49. classroom and instructional management practices promote
    student engagement and maximize instructional time and effectiveness
  50. characteristics of effective classroom instructional & management practices:
    classrooms are
    highly interactive (ENGAGED) and provide instruction
  51. characteristics of effective classroom instructional & management practices:
    academic and social expectations are
    • well established
    • explicitly taught at the school & classroom levels
  52. characteristics of effective classroom instructional & management practices:
    people meed to
    consistently implement the instruction that will lead to the students learning the skills and information they need to learn
  53. characteristics of effective classroom instructional & management practices:
    lessons will be linked between
    • instruction, behavior, and the curriculum
    • lessons will be well placed & classroom/school environment is supportive
  54. characteristics of effective classroom instructional & management practices:
    teachers plan and manage whole-class & small group lessons, independent work, assessment tasks, & instructional materials effectively so the
    students are actively engaged, instructional time is maximized, and lesson objectives are achieved
  55. teaching is linked to the way students
    behave
  56. time is allocated for educators to reflect, discuss, analyze, and refine their
    own professional practices and to plan and refine instruction accordingly
  57. it is important to ensure that all teachers are well trained in
    reading & language arts and support teachers in their implementation of effective programs
  58. parents need to be
    well informed about the standards and progress of their children
  59. ideas for developing motivation in reading:
    displaying their own ethusiasim for
    reading and appreciation of its value
  60. ideas for developing motivation in reading:
    providing appropriate
    reading materials (readable and interesting)
  61. ideas for developing motivation in reading:
    providing instruction that enables students to
    achieve the skills necessary for successful reading
  62. ideas for developing motivation in reading:
    creating and stimulating the
    learning environement
  63. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    encouraging students to
    take home books that are appropriate to their reading levels
  64. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    encouraging parents to read to their children and
    model the value of reading at home for pleasure and information
  65. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    reading for pleasure should be
    promoted in every classroom, and the school should supply a wide variety of interesting reading materials at the students independent reading level
  66. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    motivation is also linked to 4 key features of literacy learning:
    • 1. providing access to books
    • 2. offering a choice of texts
    • 3. established familiarity with a topic
    • 4. promoting social interactions about books
  67. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    encouraging students to
    read independently is critical in order to understand and appreiate reading
  68. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    the teacher should schedule some time for independent reading daily and
    should serve as a model of how to read well as students engage in silent reading with books selected by themselves or by the teacher
  69. modeling positive reading behaviors:
    there should be some time set aside for independent reading but
    not a lot as the most time should be devoted to developing student skills in reading
  70. effort:
    student effort is
    an essential component of successful learning
  71. effort:
    effective teachers teach so that students see that there is
    a direct relationship between effort and achievement
  72. effort:
    effective teachers teach
    directly
  73. effort:
    effective teachers hold
    students to high standards
  74. effort:
    effective teachers provide
    corrective feedback to their students
  75. academic language refers to
    the language of literacy and books, tests, and formal writing
  76. vocabulary is the
    critical element of academic language
  77. academic language is learned by
    being repeated and extended while students are learning subject matter that includes science, literatire, history, and social science
  78. key components of developing academic language are
    reading, writing, and talking about books and school subect matter
  79. hearing academic language is not enough for
    learning academic language the students must speak and write the language
  80. talking about text is necessary for them to
    develop thier active vocabulary
  81. 4 strategies suggested for developing academic language (1)
    • reading aloud to students:
    • builds language and vocabulary
    • fovus should be placed on building language, vocab, and knowledge of conten
  82. 4 strategies suggested for developing academic language (instructional discussions)
    • instructional discussions:
    • students should have the opportunities to initiate and participate in discussions on intructional topics.
    • students should discuss and answer questions
  83. 4 strategies suggested for developing academic language (reading by students)
    one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in general and vocabulary development in particular is the amount of time students spend reading
  84. 4 strategies suggested for developing academic language Writing by students
    develop academic language when they write and respond to and analyze literature and compose essays and reports on a variety of topics
  85. students need to read widely at
    incresing more challenging levels
  86. high interst, low vocab books (trade books) are
    good for developing fluency but not necessarily for developing academic language
  87. look over page 7
  88. reading level: independent
    • word recognition (oral reading): 98-100%
    • comprehension (silent reading): 90-100%
  89. reading level: instructional level
    • word recognition: 95%
    • comprehension: 75%
    • on grade level
    • 1-2 errors
  90. reading level: frustration level
    • Word recognition: 90% or below
    • Comprehension: 50% or below
    • full of errors
  91. go over pg 193-195

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