Test 1

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Author:
elp3
ID:
102172
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Test 1
Updated:
2011-09-17 20:15:03
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dilution problem
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practice
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  1. Make 75 ml of a 2M HCl solution from the 5M solution you have.
    • V1 C1 = V2 C2
    • 75 x 2 = X x 5
    • 150 = 30 x 5
    • X = 30

    30 ml of a 5M solution brought up to 75 ml with diluent = 2 M HCl
  2. How many grams are needed to make 2 L of 3 M HCl ? HCl gmw is 36.5
    • g= M x L x gmw
    • X = 3M x 2L x 36.5

    • X = 219
    • 219 g HCL brought up to 2 L = 3M HCl
  3. How much 4 M NaCl can be made using 45g NaCl? gmw NaCl is 58.5
    L = g/ M divided by gmw

    • = 45 g divided by 58.5
    • 4 M

    L= 0.2

    45g NaCl brought up to 0.2 L = 4M NaCl
  4. What is the Normality of a 0.75 M solution of AlCl3 ? AlCl3 valence is 3
    N= M x valence

    0.75 x 3 = N

    N= 2.25
  5. Make 1.5 mL of a 1:3 dilution.
    • proportion A = C
    • B D

    • 1 = x
    • 3 1.5

    X = 0.5

    0.5 SV + 1.0 DV = 1.5
    TV
  6. You combined 1 ml serum with 1 ml of saline. What dilution did you create?
    SV + DV = TV

    1ml + 1 ml = 2 ml

    1 : 2
  7. Put 0.5 ml of saline in 3 tubes. Place 0.25 ml patient sample in tube 1 and mix. Take 0.5 ml from tube one and transfer to tube 2 and mix. Do the same for tube 3. What are the dilutions in each tube?
    • Tube 1- 1: 3
    • Tube 2- 1:6 (1:2 of a 1:3)
    • Tube 3- 1: 12 (1 :2 of a 1:6)
  8. Make 150 ml of buffer usung 3 parts NaCl and 2 parts water.
    C / (A + B)= V

    150/ (3 + 2) = 30

    150 / 5 = 30

    90 ml NaCl + 60 ml water = 150 ml buffer
  9. Usual site of venipuncture-
    Antecubital
  10. Red, gold, red/gray collection tubes are used for-
    Chemistry analysis- they have lithotrypsic gel to separate serum, they contain no anticoagulant, are used for serum
  11. Green collection tubes are used for-
    • chemistry- They have the anticoagulant
    • sodium or lithium heparin. Plasma comes from these tubes
  12. Plasma comes from blood that-
    has not been allowed to clot
  13. Serum comes from blood that-
    has been allowed to clot
  14. The # 1 analyte checked for is-
    glucose

    electrolytes and protein are common also
  15. Urine specimens are often checked in chemistry lab for
    drug screen, pregnancy
  16. CSF is checked in chemistry for-
    protein, glucose, lactate
  17. Hemolysis after centrifugation is usually caused by-
    rough stick
  18. Icterus after centrifugation is usually caused by-
    Liver (yellow)
  19. Seeing Lipemia after centrifugation is caused by-
    Triglycerides (whitish)
  20. Example of a corrosive chemical-
    HCl
  21. Example of a toxic chemical-
    disinfectant
  22. Example of a carcinogenic chemical-
    benzene
  23. Example of an ignitable chemical-
    acetone
  24. Example of an explosive chemical-
    sodium azide
  25. Define biohazard-
    infectious material
  26. The #1 lab accident is-
    needle sticks
  27. Viability of Hepatitus B in spills
    7 days
  28. Viability of HIV in spills-
    3 days
  29. If a tube breaks in the centrifuge allow it to sit-
    1/2 hour to allow fine droplets to settle
  30. Name 2 blood bourne pathogens of importance-
    HIV and Hepatitis C
  31. Name an air bourne pathogen of importance
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
  32. Define nosocomial infection
    Hospital acquired
  33. Used to decontaminate spills and glassware before washing-
    0.5% household bleach
  34. parameters for autoclaving
    121 degrees C at 15# pressure for 30-60 minutes
  35. Type of water used for reagent calibration or controls
    Reagent grade water
  36. Detects lab problems before during & after testing
    Quality assurance
  37. Quality factors outside the lab
    Pre-analytical
  38. Lab control factors
    analytical
  39. Used to set instrument parameters
    calibrators
  40. Used to find reference ranges or as a cross check
    quality controls
  41. internal control-
    used within a single laboratory
  42. external control-
    prepared by survey teams such as proficiency testing or surveys
  43. quality factors affecting patient recordkeeping or patient results
    post analytical factors
  44. The closeness with whichresults agree with a known true value
    accuracy
  45. determines the accuracy of a procedure
    mean
  46. determines the precision of a procedure
    Co- efficient of variation - CV
  47. error that occurs solely by chance
    random
  48. error that affects all samples
    systematic
  49. Gaussian Distribution Curve
    bell shaped curve
  50. Another name for +/- 1 SD
    2 STD range
  51. Another name for +/- 2 SD
    4 STD range OR 95% interval
  52. Another name for +/- 3 SD
    6 STD range
  53. What range is considered acceptable for all test results in the lab?
    +/- 2SD
  54. The average of a group of numbers
    mean
  55. Another name for Standard deviation
    confidence limits
  56. Which Westgard rule is known as the warning rule?
    12s
  57. All Qc results are distributed on the same side of the mean for 6 or 7 days
    Shift
  58. All QC results consistantly either decrease or increase for 6 or 7 days
    Trend
  59. The patients most recent result compared to the previous value
    Delta Check
  60. The smallest concentration that can be detected accurately
    Analytic sensitivity
  61. The proportion of patients that test positive for a disease
    Diagnostic sensitivity
  62. The proportion of patients without the disease that test negative
    diagnostic specificity
  63. Absorbance is directly proportional to concentration
    • Beer's Law
    • A=abc
  64. <400 nm (light)
    Ultraviolet
  65. 400-800 nm (light)
    Visual
  66. > 800 nm (light)
    Infrared
  67. Required conditions for Beer's law to be true
    • homogenous solution
    • monochromatic light source
    • dilute enough to read
  68. Isolates a wavelength of light
    slit
  69. width of the slit
    bandpass
  70. holds sample for photometry
    cuvette
  71. light which passes thru the cuvette
    percent transmission
  72. light which remains in the cuvette
    absorbance
  73. define bandpass
    the whole amount of the wavelength
  74. light source for photometer
    • tungsten lamp (white light)
    • halogen or quartz ( UV)
  75. Directs and focuses light in a photometer
    culminating lens
  76. Breaks the light into individual wavelengths
    • monochromator-
    • It has 3 parts:

    • 1. glass filters (colorimeter)
    • 2. prism ( Spectrophotometer)
    • 3. diffraction grating (spectrophotometer)
  77. detects the amount of light transmitted and converts it to electrical energy
    photodetector
  78. converts electrical energy into a usable display
    readout device
  79. standard curves must consist of
    at least 2 standards
  80. 3 types of blanks used on spectrophotometer
    1. Reagent blank - reagent only, no sample

    2. water blank - water only, used with clear reagents to save money

    3. sample blank - sample plus clear reagent or water ( subteacts the color of the sample)
  81. formula for Absorbance
    A = 2-log%T

    • Graphed on linear graph paper
    • A is directly proportional to Concentration (C)
    • A is inversely proportional to Transmittance (T)
  82. mathematical proof of linear standard curve
    K constant

    K= Absorbance std divided by Concentration std (for each standard)
  83. Colorimetric Formula
    Conc. of Unknown = A unknown divided by A standard X concentration std
  84. K Constant
    • K= Abs
    • Cons for each standard
  85. define the differences between qualitative and quantitative results
    • Qualitative- is either there or it is not
    • Quantiative- how much is there - mg/dL or such

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