# Test 1

 The flashcards below were created by user elp3 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Make 75 ml of a 2M HCl solution from the 5M solution you have. V1 C1 = V2 C275 x 2 = X x 5150 = 30 x 5X = 30 30 ml of a 5M solution brought up to 75 ml with diluent = 2 M HCl How many grams are needed to make 2 L of 3 M HCl ? HCl gmw is 36.5 g= M x L x gmw X = 3M x 2L x 36.5 X = 219 219 g HCL brought up to 2 L = 3M HCl How much 4 M NaCl can be made using 45g NaCl? gmw NaCl is 58.5 L = g/ M divided by gmw = 45 g divided by 58.54 M L= 0.2 45g NaCl brought up to 0.2 L = 4M NaCl What is the Normality of a 0.75 M solution of AlCl3 ? AlCl3 valence is 3 N= M x valence 0.75 x 3 = N N= 2.25 Make 1.5 mL of a 1:3 dilution. proportion A = C B D 1 = x 3 1.5 X = 0.5 0.5 SV + 1.0 DV = 1.5 TV You combined 1 ml serum with 1 ml of saline. What dilution did you create? SV + DV = TV 1ml + 1 ml = 2 ml 1 : 2 Put 0.5 ml of saline in 3 tubes. Place 0.25 ml patient sample in tube 1 and mix. Take 0.5 ml from tube one and transfer to tube 2 and mix. Do the same for tube 3. What are the dilutions in each tube? Tube 1- 1: 3Tube 2- 1:6 (1:2 of a 1:3)Tube 3- 1: 12 (1 :2 of a 1:6) Make 150 ml of buffer usung 3 parts NaCl and 2 parts water. C / (A + B)= V 150/ (3 + 2) = 30 150 / 5 = 30 90 ml NaCl + 60 ml water = 150 ml buffer Usual site of venipuncture- Antecubital Red, gold, red/gray collection tubes are used for- Chemistry analysis- they have lithotrypsic gel to separate serum, they contain no anticoagulant, are used for serum Green collection tubes are used for- chemistry- They have the anticoagulant sodium or lithium heparin. Plasma comes from these tubes Plasma comes from blood that- has not been allowed to clot Serum comes from blood that- has been allowed to clot The # 1 analyte checked for is- glucose electrolytes and protein are common also Urine specimens are often checked in chemistry lab for drug screen, pregnancy CSF is checked in chemistry for- protein, glucose, lactate Hemolysis after centrifugation is usually caused by- rough stick Icterus after centrifugation is usually caused by- Liver (yellow) Seeing Lipemia after centrifugation is caused by- Triglycerides (whitish) Example of a corrosive chemical- HCl Example of a toxic chemical- disinfectant Example of a carcinogenic chemical- benzene Example of an ignitable chemical- acetone Example of an explosive chemical- sodium azide Define biohazard- infectious material The #1 lab accident is- needle sticks Viability of Hepatitus B in spills 7 days Viability of HIV in spills- 3 days If a tube breaks in the centrifuge allow it to sit- 1/2 hour to allow fine droplets to settle Name 2 blood bourne pathogens of importance- HIV and Hepatitis C Name an air bourne pathogen of importance Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Define nosocomial infection Hospital acquired Used to decontaminate spills and glassware before washing- 0.5% household bleach parameters for autoclaving 121 degrees C at 15# pressure for 30-60 minutes Type of water used for reagent calibration or controls Reagent grade water Detects lab problems before during & after testing Quality assurance Quality factors outside the lab Pre-analytical Lab control factors analytical Used to set instrument parameters calibrators Used to find reference ranges or as a cross check quality controls internal control- used within a single laboratory external control- prepared by survey teams such as proficiency testing or surveys quality factors affecting patient recordkeeping or patient results post analytical factors The closeness with whichresults agree with a known true value accuracy determines the accuracy of a procedure mean determines the precision of a procedure Co- efficient of variation - CV error that occurs solely by chance random error that affects all samples systematic Gaussian Distribution Curve bell shaped curve Another name for +/- 1 SD 2 STD range Another name for +/- 2 SD 4 STD range OR 95% interval Another name for +/- 3 SD 6 STD range What range is considered acceptable for all test results in the lab? +/- 2SD The average of a group of numbers mean Another name for Standard deviation confidence limits Which Westgard rule is known as the warning rule? 12s All Qc results are distributed on the same side of the mean for 6 or 7 days Shift All QC results consistantly either decrease or increase for 6 or 7 days Trend The patients most recent result compared to the previous value Delta Check The smallest concentration that can be detected accurately Analytic sensitivity The proportion of patients that test positive for a disease Diagnostic sensitivity The proportion of patients without the disease that test negative diagnostic specificity Absorbance is directly proportional to concentration Beer's LawA=abc <400 nm (light) Ultraviolet 400-800 nm (light) Visual > 800 nm (light) Infrared Required conditions for Beer's law to be true homogenous solutionmonochromatic light sourcedilute enough to read Isolates a wavelength of light slit width of the slit bandpass holds sample for photometry cuvette light which passes thru the cuvette percent transmission light which remains in the cuvette absorbance define bandpass the whole amount of the wavelength light source for photometer tungsten lamp (white light)halogen or quartz ( UV) Directs and focuses light in a photometer culminating lens Breaks the light into individual wavelengths monochromator- It has 3 parts: 1. glass filters (colorimeter)2. prism ( Spectrophotometer)3. diffraction grating (spectrophotometer) detects the amount of light transmitted and converts it to electrical energy photodetector converts electrical energy into a usable display readout device standard curves must consist of at least 2 standards 3 types of blanks used on spectrophotometer 1. Reagent blank - reagent only, no sample 2. water blank - water only, used with clear reagents to save money 3. sample blank - sample plus clear reagent or water ( subteacts the color of the sample) formula for Absorbance A = 2-log%T Graphed on linear graph paperA is directly proportional to Concentration (C)A is inversely proportional to Transmittance (T) mathematical proof of linear standard curve K constant K= Absorbance std divided by Concentration std (for each standard) Colorimetric Formula Conc. of Unknown = A unknown divided by A standard X concentration std K Constant K= AbsCons for each standard define the differences between qualitative and quantitative results Qualitative- is either there or it is notQuantiative- how much is there - mg/dL or such Authorelp3 ID102172 Card SetTest 1 Descriptionpractice Updated2011-09-18T00:15:03Z Show Answers