# Test 1

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1. Make 75 ml of a 2M HCl solution from the 5M solution you have.
• V1 C1 = V2 C2
• 75 x 2 = X x 5
• 150 = 30 x 5
• X = 30

30 ml of a 5M solution brought up to 75 ml with diluent = 2 M HCl
2. How many grams are needed to make 2 L of 3 M HCl ? HCl gmw is 36.5
• g= M x L x gmw
• X = 3M x 2L x 36.5

• X = 219
• 219 g HCL brought up to 2 L = 3M HCl
3. How much 4 M NaCl can be made using 45g NaCl? gmw NaCl is 58.5
L = g/ M divided by gmw

• = 45 g divided by 58.5
• 4 M

L= 0.2

45g NaCl brought up to 0.2 L = 4M NaCl
4. What is the Normality of a 0.75 M solution of AlCl3 ? AlCl3 valence is 3
N= M x valence

0.75 x 3 = N

N= 2.25
5. Make 1.5 mL of a 1:3 dilution.
• proportion A = C
• B D

• 1 = x
• 3 1.5

X = 0.5

0.5 SV + 1.0 DV = 1.5
TV
6. You combined 1 ml serum with 1 ml of saline. What dilution did you create?
SV + DV = TV

1ml + 1 ml = 2 ml

1 : 2
7. Put 0.5 ml of saline in 3 tubes. Place 0.25 ml patient sample in tube 1 and mix. Take 0.5 ml from tube one and transfer to tube 2 and mix. Do the same for tube 3. What are the dilutions in each tube?
• Tube 1- 1: 3
• Tube 2- 1:6 (1:2 of a 1:3)
• Tube 3- 1: 12 (1 :2 of a 1:6)
8. Make 150 ml of buffer usung 3 parts NaCl and 2 parts water.
C / (A + B)= V

150/ (3 + 2) = 30

150 / 5 = 30

90 ml NaCl + 60 ml water = 150 ml buffer
9. Usual site of venipuncture-
Antecubital
10. Red, gold, red/gray collection tubes are used for-
Chemistry analysis- they have lithotrypsic gel to separate serum, they contain no anticoagulant, are used for serum
11. Green collection tubes are used for-
• chemistry- They have the anticoagulant
• sodium or lithium heparin. Plasma comes from these tubes
12. Plasma comes from blood that-
has not been allowed to clot
13. Serum comes from blood that-
has been allowed to clot
14. The # 1 analyte checked for is-
glucose

electrolytes and protein are common also
15. Urine specimens are often checked in chemistry lab for
drug screen, pregnancy
16. CSF is checked in chemistry for-
protein, glucose, lactate
17. Hemolysis after centrifugation is usually caused by-
rough stick
18. Icterus after centrifugation is usually caused by-
Liver (yellow)
19. Seeing Lipemia after centrifugation is caused by-
Triglycerides (whitish)
20. Example of a corrosive chemical-
HCl
21. Example of a toxic chemical-
disinfectant
22. Example of a carcinogenic chemical-
benzene
23. Example of an ignitable chemical-
acetone
24. Example of an explosive chemical-
sodium azide
25. Define biohazard-
infectious material
26. The #1 lab accident is-
needle sticks
27. Viability of Hepatitus B in spills
7 days
28. Viability of HIV in spills-
3 days
29. If a tube breaks in the centrifuge allow it to sit-
1/2 hour to allow fine droplets to settle
30. Name 2 blood bourne pathogens of importance-
HIV and Hepatitis C
31. Name an air bourne pathogen of importance
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
32. Define nosocomial infection
Hospital acquired
33. Used to decontaminate spills and glassware before washing-
0.5% household bleach
34. parameters for autoclaving
121 degrees C at 15# pressure for 30-60 minutes
35. Type of water used for reagent calibration or controls
36. Detects lab problems before during & after testing
Quality assurance
37. Quality factors outside the lab
Pre-analytical
38. Lab control factors
analytical
39. Used to set instrument parameters
calibrators
40. Used to find reference ranges or as a cross check
quality controls
41. internal control-
used within a single laboratory
42. external control-
prepared by survey teams such as proficiency testing or surveys
43. quality factors affecting patient recordkeeping or patient results
post analytical factors
44. The closeness with whichresults agree with a known true value
accuracy
45. determines the accuracy of a procedure
mean
46. determines the precision of a procedure
Co- efficient of variation - CV
47. error that occurs solely by chance
random
48. error that affects all samples
systematic
49. Gaussian Distribution Curve
bell shaped curve
50. Another name for +/- 1 SD
2 STD range
51. Another name for +/- 2 SD
4 STD range OR 95% interval
52. Another name for +/- 3 SD
6 STD range
53. What range is considered acceptable for all test results in the lab?
+/- 2SD
54. The average of a group of numbers
mean
55. Another name for Standard deviation
confidence limits
56. Which Westgard rule is known as the warning rule?
12s
57. All Qc results are distributed on the same side of the mean for 6 or 7 days
Shift
58. All QC results consistantly either decrease or increase for 6 or 7 days
Trend
59. The patients most recent result compared to the previous value
Delta Check
60. The smallest concentration that can be detected accurately
Analytic sensitivity
61. The proportion of patients that test positive for a disease
Diagnostic sensitivity
62. The proportion of patients without the disease that test negative
diagnostic specificity
63. Absorbance is directly proportional to concentration
• Beer's Law
• A=abc
64. <400 nm (light)
Ultraviolet
65. 400-800 nm (light)
Visual
66. > 800 nm (light)
Infrared
67. Required conditions for Beer's law to be true
• homogenous solution
• monochromatic light source
• dilute enough to read
68. Isolates a wavelength of light
slit
69. width of the slit
bandpass
70. holds sample for photometry
cuvette
71. light which passes thru the cuvette
percent transmission
72. light which remains in the cuvette
absorbance
73. define bandpass
the whole amount of the wavelength
74. light source for photometer
• tungsten lamp (white light)
• halogen or quartz ( UV)
75. Directs and focuses light in a photometer
culminating lens
76. Breaks the light into individual wavelengths
• monochromator-
• It has 3 parts:

• 1. glass filters (colorimeter)
• 2. prism ( Spectrophotometer)
• 3. diffraction grating (spectrophotometer)
77. detects the amount of light transmitted and converts it to electrical energy
photodetector
78. converts electrical energy into a usable display
79. standard curves must consist of
at least 2 standards
80. 3 types of blanks used on spectrophotometer
1. Reagent blank - reagent only, no sample

2. water blank - water only, used with clear reagents to save money

3. sample blank - sample plus clear reagent or water ( subteacts the color of the sample)
81. formula for Absorbance
A = 2-log%T

• Graphed on linear graph paper
• A is directly proportional to Concentration (C)
• A is inversely proportional to Transmittance (T)
82. mathematical proof of linear standard curve
K constant

K= Absorbance std divided by Concentration std (for each standard)
83. Colorimetric Formula
Conc. of Unknown = A unknown divided by A standard X concentration std
84. K Constant
• K= Abs
• Cons for each standard
85. define the differences between qualitative and quantitative results
• Qualitative- is either there or it is not
• Quantiative- how much is there - mg/dL or such

### Card Set Information

 Author: elp3 ID: 102172 Filename: Test 1 Updated: 2011-09-18 00:15:03 Tags: dilution problem Folders: Description: practice Show Answers:

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