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Which system releases hormones into the blood?
- Allow chemical signals to move from one cell to another
- (adjacent cells)
How is cell communication invloved
Cell communication involves signaling molecules that are secreted into interstitial fluid (fluid between cells)
(adjacent cells) or binds to another cell
How do cells respond or know when to respond
- Cells have a specific signal molecule
- (Target cell)
How do signaling molecules diffuse?
- They go through a short distance of interstitial fluid and binds to nearby cells.
- (adjacent cells)
Where do neurons secrete neurotransmitters?
In the post synaptic cleft
What activates pain receptors?
EX. Think someone kicks you in the prostate....Ouch
What are key attributes of hormones?
- last longer
- Exerted on more cells
- Secreted in Intersitial Fluid
- Travel Further
Which two scientists did a discovery on hormones?
Bayliss and Starling
What was secreted from the pancreas when food was in the stomach?
Bicarbonate....it reduces stomach acidity
What system did Bayliss and Starling think was responsible for the secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas?
The nervous system
What did Bayliss and Starling do to see if cutting the nerves would do anything and the result they got was....
Bicarborbonate was still secreted from the pancreas to the small intestine
What conclusion did Bayliss and Starling make after cutting the nerves and still seeing a reaction?
They saw that the reaction came from something in the blood
How did Bayliss and Starling test this idea of having the reaction being something from the blood?
Small intestine cells were exposed to stomach acid then extracted those cells to inject into the animals neck which caused the pancreas to secrete Bi-carbonate
What is the substance called that is secreted from the pancreas when it is exposed to stomach acid?
The substance is called secretin
What is the nickname for the neuro system and the endocrine system together?
It is called the neuroendocrine system
What does the neuro endocrine system do?
- It forms embryo's ectodermal layer
- They both respond to te hypothalmus, the command center in the forebrain
- They affect the same organs
- Hormones affect brain development before and after birth
- Hormones affect sleep/wake cycles
- Hormones affect emotion, mood/memory
- Nervous system affects hormones secretin
- Fight or flight is increased in some, decreased in others
How do cells interact with eachother in an animals' body?
- Signaled molecules intergrate cell activity
- Each type of signal acts on all cells that have receptors for it.
- Targeted cells alter their activities in response
What does the hypothalmus do?
- Makes and releases inhibitors
- Hormones that act in the anterior lobe of the pituitary
- Makes anti-duretic hormone and oxytocin
- Stores in and releases from posterior lobe of pituitary
Pituitary Gland does what:
- Anterior lobe of the pituitary makes ACTH,TSH,LH,FSH
- Growth Hormone
- Posterior lobe secretes antidiuretic hormone
- Oxytocin (acts on uterus and mammary glands)
- Both which are made in the Hypothalmus
What do the adrenal Glands do?
- The adrenal glands have the adrenal cortex secreting cortisol which affects metabolism and immune response
- Aldosterone (acts on kidneys)-sex hormone
- Adrenal Medulla makes and secretes norepinephrine/epinephrine