Path Mini 1

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Path Mini 1
2011-09-16 21:07:24
Path Mini

Path Mini 1
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  1. What is the difference between an artery and vein?
    Artery- internal elastic lamina,
  2. What is Mockenberg's arteriosclerosis?
    calcification of media layer in small and medium sized blood vessels
  3. A disease of the bone that has ateriovenous malformations which can lead to high output cardiac failure?
    Paget's disease of bone
  4. Paget's disease is due to increased activity of what?os
    osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  5. 3 types of Arteriosclerosis?
    • hypertensive arteriosclerosis
    • atherosclerosis
    • Mockenberg calcific arteriosclerosis
  6. In Mockenberg arteriosclerosis, where are calcium salts deposited?
    in the intima layer
  7. In atherosclerosis, where are cholesterols laiden macrophages/foam cells found?
    intima layer
  8. Cholesterol rich plaques deposited in the intima layer of a BV are called?
  9. Virchow's triad?
    • Hemodynamics (stasis)
    • Endothelium
    • Hypercoagubility
  10. What condition produces concentric LV hypertrophy?
  11. What kind of vascular pathology presents with onion skinning?
    hyperplastic arteriosclerosis
  12. What is malignant hypertension?
    • systolic >200
    • Diastolic >120
  13. What kind of hypertension causes end organ damage?
    Malignant Hypertension
  14. Hypertension causes what in end organs? be it brain, kidney, retina?
    • hemorrhage--in brain--intracerebral hemorrhages
    • retinal hemorrhages
    • kidney hemorrhage--eventually kidney failure
  15. What is the mutation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
    beta myosin heavy chain
  16. What are the causes of aneurysm?(abnormal dilation of a blood vessel due to weakening of the wall)
    • Congenital( Marfans, Ehler's Danlos)
    • Hypertension
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Infection, Trauma
  17. What are the different types of Aneurysms?
    • Saccular
    • Fusiform
    • Dissecting
  18. What are the 3 fates of aneurysm?
    • Stasis--thrombosis
    • Rupture--cardiogenic shock
    • Compression of Surrounding structures
  19. Why do AAA occur below the renal arteries(L4)?
    because there is poor blood supply because the vasa vasorum doesnt supply blood there so there is poor repair and the wall becomes weak over time because of stress be it hemodynamic, infections, atherosclerosis, Diabetes Mellitus
  20. When the lumen of a BV is occluded how much, do you hear a bruit?
  21. Obliterative endoarteritis occurs as a result of what bacterial infection of the Blood vessel wall?
    syphilis--Treponema Pallidum
  22. Mycotic Aneurysm is caused by what?
    • Salmonella
    • Gastroenteritis
  23. In what 2 congenital conditions do you get berry aneurysms?
    • PCKD
    • Coarctation of Aorta
  24. Where does a berry aneurysm occur?
    at the bifurcation of the anterior communicating and anterior cerebral artery
  25. In berry aneurysms caused by congenital defects, what is missing in the blood vessels rendering it susceptible to an aneurysm?
    internal elastic membrane
  26. Rupture of what artery produces a subarachnoid hemorrhage?
    bifurcation of anterior communicating artery with anterior cerebral artery
  27. What trace element is needed for lysyl oxidase in Ehler's Danlos syndrome?
  28. What would be seen on an Xray with proximal aortic dissection?
    Mediastinal Widening
  29. What is the secondary cause of Hypertension?
    Renal Artery Stenosis
  30. 90% of aortic stenosis occurs in what part of aorta?
    proximal--1st 10 cm
  31. Polyarteritis is what type hypersensitivity?
    Type III
  32. What antigen is usually implicated in PAN?
    HEP B
  33. What is usually spared in PAN?
    pulmonary arteries
  34. Which vasculitis has lesions in different stages of development?
  35. Which vasculitis has c-ANCA?
  36. What vasculitis has granulomas with eosinophilia and asthma?
    Church-Strauss Syndrome
  37. Hypersensitivity to Hep B and Amphetamines produces what vasculitis?
  38. What 2 vasculitedes have p-ANCA antigen?
    Churcg-strauss Syndrome
  39. What vasculitis produces neuropathy?
    Church-Strauss syndrome
  40. What vasculitis involves the coronary arteries?
  41. Kawasaki affects what age group?
  42. Microscopic Polyangitis is what type of Hypersensitivity?
  43. What can cause Microscopic Polyangitis?
    • Drugs: penicillin, sulfonamides
    • Bacteria: beta hemolytic streptococcus, Hep B
  44. In terms of Lesions how are PAN and Microscopic polyangitis different?
    • PAN-lesions of different age
    • Microscopic polyangitis--lesion of same age
  45. Giant cell arteritis involves what arteries?
    temporal and extra cranial branches
  46. What condition is associated with Giant cell arteritis?
    Polymyalgia rheumatica
  47. High ESR is suggestive of what Vasculitis?
    Giant Cell Arteritis
  48. What vasculitides have granulomas?
    • Wegeners
    • Churg-Strauss
    • Giant cell arteritis
  49. Which vasculitis is the "pulseless"?
  50. Which vasculitis is similar to measles bc of a rash and lymphadenopathy?
  51. Young and Middle aged asian women get what vasculitis?
  52. Cigarette smoking, intermittent claudication are associated with what vasculitis?
  53. Thromboangitis obliterans is associated with what vasculitis?
  54. Wegener's affects what 3 organ systems?
    renal, pulmonary, sinuses
  55. When arteriospasm occurs secondary to a Mixed CT disease it is called what?
    Raynauds phenomenon
  56. Raynauds disease occurs due to what?
    • cold temp
    • emotional stress
  57. Raynauds phenomenon occurs in what conditions?
    • TAO
    • Takayasu
    • Thoracic outlet
    • CREST
    • Cryoglobulinemia
    • Cold agglutinin
    • Ergot poisoning
  58. What Vasculitis occurs following a URI?
    Henoch-Schloein Purpura
  59. HSP affects what 3 parts of the body?
    Skin, Joints , GI
  60. IgA nephropathy affecting children?
  61. What are the 3 regions where varicose Veins may become engorged?
    esophageal verices