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How do you take tempanic temp on infant?
Down and back (ChilD = Down)
- -Development proceeds from head downward.
- -i.e., Hold up head early in development, learn to walk late in infancy.
-First able to control the trunk, then the arms; fingers
General to Specific development
- – Screaming/crying (can’t explain what they like or don’t like);
- eventually can be specific about where they hurt, can localize the problem
Factors affecting growth and development:
- a. Genetics
- b. Environment
- c. Health Status
- d. Nutrition- what parents know/believe about nutrition.
- f. Family-
Growth and development for 2-3 months
- Turns head side to side;
- follows objects (mobiles in cribs).
Growth and development for 4-5 months
- Rolls over from front to back;
- grasps objects and switches from hand to hand (holds rattle);
- enjoys social interaction;
- aware of surroundings;
- begins to show memory
Growth and development for 6-7 months
- Creeps; sits with support;
- doubles birth weight;
- rolls over from back to front;
- holds arms out,
- waves bye-bye;
- mood swings.
- Toys that use sense and baby can minipulate
Growth and development for 8-9 months
- Sits alone without support;
- stands while holding on;
Growth and development for 10-11 months
- Pulls self to standing;
- walks holding on to furniture;
- stranger anxiety increasing;
- understands object permanence (peek-a-boo,
- mirrors, push/pull toys
Growth and development for 12-13 months
- Walks with one hand held;
- stands alone;
- triples birth weight;
- has 6 teeth;
- drinks from cup;
- can take a few steps w/o falling. (large safety risk)
Growth and development for 14-15 months
- Walks alone;
- shows emotions such as anger, affection;
- explores away from mother in familiar setting.
- toys with pieces/parts)
Expected outcomes for 2 yo
- Runs, jumps, walks up steps;
- parallel play
- changes toys often,
- enjoys push-pull toys; builds small tower of blocks; “NO”
Expected outcomes for 3 yo
- Hops on one foot,
- walks backwards;
- rides a tricycle;
- Potty trained.
- Brushes teeth.
Expected outcomes for 4 yo
- Dresses self without help;
- understands sharing,
- needs socialization.
- Choose toys/puzzles with fine motor development; uses scissors
Erickson's Stage for birth - one year (Infancy)
- Trust vs. Mistrust
- Attachment to mother
Erickson's Stage for 1-3 yo (Toddler)
- Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
- Gaining control over self and environment
Erickson's Stage for 3-6 yo (Preschool)
- Initiative vs. Guilt
- Becoming purposeful and directive
Erickson's Stage for 6-12 yo (School-age)
- Industry vs. Inferiority
- Developing skills to "be a worker"
Erickson's Stage for 12-20 (Adolescence)
- Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Appearances & peers important
Reasons for regression in a child's development
Any time there is a stressor (starting school, new baby in home, change in environment, etc)
Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST)
- -This test identifies how a child is developing in comparison to peer group from birth to age 6
- - Four main categories:
- Personal social
- Fine motor-adaptive
- Gross motor skills
Types of play: Newborn
- -The child is relatively stationary and appears to be performing random movements with no apparent purpose.
- -A relatively infrequent style of play (except for the infant…where this is the normal play until they can actively participate and interact
Types of play: Infant - Toddler
- SOLITARY-PARALLEL (side by side):
- -The child is completely engrossed in playing and does not seem to notice other children.
- -Most often seen in children between 2 and 3 years-old.
Types of play: Preschooler
- -More interested in each other than the toys they
- are using.
- This is the first category that involves strong social interaction between the children while they play
Types of play: School-age
- -Some organization enters children's play, for example
- the playing has some goal
- -Children often adopt roles and act as a group.
- -Change rules so they can win
Types of play: Adolescent
- -Child takes an interest in other children's play but
- does not join in.
- -May ask questions or just talk to other children,
- -but the main activity is simply to watch
When does separation anxiety peak
Separation anxiety peaks at 9 months
What are the three stages of separation anxiety?
Which is the healthiest?
- a) Protest- scream, complain, cry when caregiver leaves (most healthyerest)
- b) Despair- Sad but doesn't expend energy on expressing it
- c) Denial- connect to staff and no longer attached to caregiver
What is normal respiratory rate of newborn?
Proper med aministration techniques for: Infant
- Have help to retrain
- Cuddle and comfort before/after
Proper med aministration techniques for: Toddler
- Use play
- Restrain as little as possible
- Give praise and rewards
Proper med aministration techniques for: Preschooler
- Give as much control as possible
- Offer choices
- Give bandaid
Proper med aministration techniques for: School-age
- Provide choices and explainations
- Provide distraction & support
Proper med aministration techniques for: Adolescent
- Expalin and allow them to participate in decisions
- Praise cooperation
- Provide outlet for frustration
- -May increase potassium and sodium levels. (watch lvls)
- -Instruct parents not to give with juices, cola, or caffeine (may decrease effectiveness)
- - Do not give with acidic fruit juices and milk
- products (may decrease effectiveness)
- -Encourage patient to increase intake of protein & decrease intake of sugars.
- -Vitamin D and oral calcium may be ordered to decrease risk of osteoporosis later on in life
- -Do not take within one hour of antacids.
- -Do not eat foods that may irritate GI tract
- -Do not take with acidic fruit juices.
- - Diet of high calories, high protein, and low fat is recommended.
- -Alkaline foods are contraindicated with enteric coated pills
- Take with food or milk to prevent GI irritation.
- Do not take foods that cause GI irritation
- -Should not be taken with anything that
- is hard on the liver.
- -Decrease intake of pickled foods