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What is the purpose of exercise programs?
Enhancement of physical fitness for daily activities, recreation, or competitive athletic endeavors.
What caloric expenditure has been shown to be successful for short and long term weight control as well as for primary and secondary prevention of chronic disease?
2,000 kcal per week.
What are the components of a copmprehensive exercise program?
- 1. Warm up
- 2. Crdiovascular endurance (aerobic) exercise stimulus.
- 3. Resistance exercise
- 4. Flexibility training.
- 5. Cool-down.
What are the five essential components into a structured exercise program.
What three considerations of each individual will result in a more individualized, safer, and effective exercise program?
What data obtained from a graded exercise test provide the basis for the exercise prescription?
- Heart Rate (HR)
- Blood pressure (BP)
- Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
- Functional capacity
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is genetically limited and may increase between __ and __ with training.
5% and 30%
What is Mode?
The type of exercise
Cardiovascular endurance is most effective when ___ are engaged in ____,____ activity.
- Large muscle groups
- Continuous, rhythmic (aerobic)
Selection of mode should be based on desired outcomes, focusing on exercised most likely to do what?
- Sustain participation
- Necessary equipment is commonly found in fitness centers.
- An upright posture is important to avoid low back trauma.
- Weak quadriceps and gluteals may cause dependance on handrails for support, reducing the intensity of the exercise.
- Typically a group activity
- Intensity is usually controlled by music and choreographed movement patterns.
- the hR is not an accurate indicator of intensity when arm movement is vigorously added to the routine
- The RPE is an appropriate indicator of intensity.
- Involve movement patterns in which both feet leave the floor simultaneousely.
- may require significant energy expenditure
- increase the potential for musculoskeletal injury.
- Involve movement patterns in which one foot remains in contact witht the floor at all times.
- Produce low-impact forces and low incidednce of musuloskeletal injury.
- Are appropriate for highly fit individuals.
- Can be increased in intensity by using greater horizontal displacement during movement.
- Involve choreographed movement patterns performed on and off bench steps varying on height from 4 to 12 inches.
- have an energy cost that ranges from 6 to 11 metabolic equivalents (MET)
- Should be reduced in cadence for individuals who are less fit (functional capacity, <8 MET).
- Allows the buoyancy properties of water to reduce the weight-bearing load, decreasing the incidence of musculoskeletal injury.
- May allow those with injuries to exercise during rehabilitation
- may be altered in intensity by changing the speed of movement or the depth of the water or by using resistance devices (e.g., fins, hand paddles)
- Involves walking, jogging, and dance activity.
- typically combines the benefits of the buoyancy and resistive properties of water, providing an aerobic stimulus as well as enhancing muscular strength and endurance.
What population groups benefit from water exercises
- A nonweight- bearing activity a with low incidence of musuloskeletal injury.
- An ergometer is recommended for accurate exercise testing and training so that workload can be quantified.
- The major limiting factor to cycling is local muscle fatigue of the upper leg.
The relative (physiological) difficulty of the exercise.
When should the RPE be individually determined?
Different exercise modalities
The time or length of an individual exercise session.
The number of exercise sessions per day and per week.
the periodic changes in exercise prescription (e.g., intensity, duration, frequency) necessary to increase fitness
- Occurs when an individual can adequately respond to the demands of a particular exercise stressor.
- Depends on health/fitness status and the relative mix of frequency, intensity, duration, and mode of exercise.
What are the stages of conditioning?
Explain the initial stage of conditioning
- Warm-up: 10-15 minutes
- Moderate intensity: 40%-60% of HRR
- Interval: 15 minutes, progressing to 30 minutes
- Frequency: 3-4 days per week.
Explain the improvement stage of conditioning.
- 50% to 85% of HRR
- Progress duration by 10% to 20% per week or as tolerated if longer.
- Progress intensity by 5% to 10% every 2 weeks until the relevant goal is attained.
- Lasts approximately 4 to 8 months.
Explain the Maintenance stage of conditioning
- Goals have been attained
- Attainment of average fitness (50th percentile in all health-related fitness paramaters) is a resonable goal.
- Maintain fitness with a variety of activities.