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groups of similar cells that perform a common function
4 tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial tissue and function
tightly packed sheets of cells that cover organs and outer surfaces and line hollow organs and vessels and body cavities. functions - protection, secretion and absorbtion, continuously sloughing off and replaced by cell division.
function of connective tissue and what is it composed of
loosely organized and composed of cells embedded in a matrix, usually binds organs or tissues to one another
6 types of connective tissue
loose, adipose, blood, fibroids, cartilage, bone
2 proteins in loose connective tissue and functions
collagen and elastin - binds epithelia to tissue, pads skin, holds organs in place.
function of adipose tissue
connects skin to underlying structure, storage of energy
what are the 3 vessels blood circulates through
4 components of blood and their functions
- red cells - carry oxygen
- white cells - fight infection
- platelets - clotting
- plasma - holds other cells - carries proteins and clotting factors
what is fibrous connective tissue and where is it found
run in parallels, tendons and ligaments
function of cartilage
- cushions joints
- forms support for ears and nose
- bone cells
- secrete substance that harden into solid matrix of collagen, calcium, and other minerals body can use
most abundant type of tissue in animals
specialized proteins of muscles
striated and smooth muscle
- striated - banded
- smooth - contracts slowly - remains contracted
3 types of muscle tissue & where are they located
- skeletal - attached to bone
- cardiac - heart
- smooth - organs
conducts electrical signals
function of nervous system
sense and process stimuli, transmit signals
where are nervous tissues found in the body
nerves do not undergo cell division and can't repair themselves
structures composed of 2 or more tissues placed together working together to produce a specific function
many organs interact to perform a common function
level of organization starting with cells
- organ system
liver cells that filter toxic matieral, dead cells, pathogens, drugs and alcohol
functions of the liver
- synthesizes blood clotting factors
- detoxifies harmful substances
- regulates blood volume
- destroys old blood cells
organ systems and functions
- lumphatic and immune
- reproductive - female
- reproductive - male
digestive tract - allows food to be exposed to actions and secretions of of various organs and transport nutrients
contain enzymes capable of breaking down biological molecules
salivary amylase and where is it found
saliva, breaks down food
food's pathway through the body
- small intenstine
- large intestine
back of throat, goes to trachea and esophagus
flap of tisue that keeps food from entering trachea
define stomach and what it breaks down
- large digestive organ
- where pepsin breaks down protein
contraction of esophagus that moves food
The stomach has a low PH
what keeps the stomach from damaging itself?
epithelial cells - secrete mucus
digested foods mixed into slurry with digestive enzymes
function of small intestine
chemical digestion and absorbtion of nutrients into bloodstream
name accessory organs and functions
- liver - produces bile
- pancreas - digestive enzymes
- gallbladder - stores and concentrates bile which is released into small intestine to digest fat
when bile crystalizes due to lack of water
projections in small intestine that increases surface area
cover villi, transport nutrients
stimulates upper part of stomach to produce gastric juices to facilitate digestion
what hormones are secreted by the duodenum
secretin and cholecystokin
what 6 items must be kept homeostatic?
- blood pressure
- water and mineral balance
- blood levels
- glucose levels
organism with ability to maintain body temp warmer than environment
ectotherms and examples
organisms that obtain body heat from absorbing from surroundings - reptiles
when a product of the process inhibits the process
when the product of process intensifies the process
function of kidneys
filters liquid waste from blood
2 main causes of kidney disease
- high blood pressure
What makes up the upper respiratory track
- nasal cavity
What makes up the lower respiratory track?
how often do you breathe per minute
What muscle controls respiration?
Where is the respiration control center?
the lungs are lined by two membranes, one covering the lungs and one lining the chest wall
tubes in lungs, large air passageway from trachea into lungs
sacs inslide lungs, making up respiratory surface in land vertebrae amd some fish
capillaries connect the gas exchange from te alveoli to the rest of the body
a reduction of respiratory surface area causes what symptoms?
Shortness of breath, wheezing
What is the primary function of the lungs?
gas exhange - aquire oxygen and expel carbon dioxide
a soap-like substance that keeps the alveoli walls from sticking together
respiratory pigment that binds to oxygen, contains iron, inside red blood cells
Why is smoking so detrimental to the human body?
carbon monixide is inhaled, slows hemoglobin release
tiny particles of partially burned tobacco and by-product
inflammation of the bronchi
allergic response that results in restricted cell walls and overproduction of mucus
lung disease, caused by breakdown of alveoli walls
What percent of lung cancer is found in current or former smokers?
Smoking increases your risk of?
- lung cancer
- kidney cancer
- pancreatic cancer
- throat cancer
- bladder cancer
- heart attack
- high blood pressure
- premature aging of skin
- lung damage
- airway damage
the cardiovascular system is made up of what 3 components?
- heart - pump
- circulatory fluid - blood
- vacular system - veins
how many liters of blood in an adult body?
What makes up plasma?
- dissolved proteins
the solid portion of blood is made up of what?
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelettes
why is tobacco smoke bad for platelettes?
increases stickiness - makes blood clot more readily
what are the four chambers of the heart?
- left atrium
- right atrium
- left ventricle
- right ventricle
muscle tissue - sends out electrical signal to cause heart to contract- controls heart rate
complete sequence within heart of filling with blood then pumping
arterial end of a net of capillaries
arteries have thicker more elastic walls than veins
blood pressure is created by what two things?
- blood from contracting arteries
- diameter of arteries
from lungs to heart
open circulatory system
vessels empty fluid directly into body's tissues
heart back to lungs for gas exchange
define how gills function
thins sheets of tissue that rely on constant movement of water past them to bring in oxygen and diffuse carbon dioxide
closed circulatory system
the circulating blood is maintained in vessels
heart and blood vessel damage
compound produced by tobacco that is a natural pesticide
bockage in artery of blood to the brain
blockage stops flow of blood to part of the heart
four organs of excretory system
function of kidneys
filter and clean the circulating blood
looped tubes in the kidneys where filtration occurs
3 steps in the kidneys and what happens
release of urinefrom the bladder
Describe the blood flow of the body
- 1. oxygenated blood from lungs goes to left atrium
- 2. contraction of heart forces blood to left ventricle
- 3. contraction of left vencticle forces blood into blood arteries at high pressure
- 4. blood flows thru arteries and arterioles into capillaries
- 5. gas and material exchange occurs in body capillaries
- 6. capillaries empty into venules, which carry blood to veins and eventually to rt atrium
- 7. blood is forced into the right ventricle by contraction of the rt atrium
- 8. contraction of the right ventricle sends blood into vessels in the lungs
Why is iron an important mineral?
Part of hemoglobin that allows binding of oxygen
List 3 ways body deals with mucus
sillia, mucus production,
What contributes to venous return?
Skeletal muscle contraction and one way valves.