Human Biology 13-14

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Human Biology 13-14
2011-09-27 23:20:12
Human Biology

Human Biology 1090 Flashcards
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  1. Tissue
    groups of similar cells that perform a common function
  2. 4 tissue types
    epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
  3. epithelial tissue and function
    tightly packed sheets of cells that cover organs and outer surfaces and line hollow organs and vessels and body cavities. functions - protection, secretion and absorbtion, continuously sloughing off and replaced by cell division.
  4. function of connective tissue and what is it composed of
    loosely organized and composed of cells embedded in a matrix, usually binds organs or tissues to one another
  5. 6 types of connective tissue
    loose, adipose, blood, fibroids, cartilage, bone
  6. 2 proteins in loose connective tissue and functions
    collagen and elastin - binds epithelia to tissue, pads skin, holds organs in place.
  7. function of adipose tissue
    connects skin to underlying structure, storage of energy
  8. what are the 3 vessels blood circulates through
    • arteries
    • veins
    • capilarries
  9. 4 components of blood and their functions
    • red cells - carry oxygen
    • white cells - fight infection
    • platelets - clotting
    • plasma - holds other cells - carries proteins and clotting factors
  10. what is fibrous connective tissue and where is it found
    run in parallels, tendons and ligaments
  11. function of cartilage
    • cushions joints
    • forms support for ears and nose
  12. osteocyte
    • bone cells
    • secrete substance that harden into solid matrix of collagen, calcium, and other minerals body can use
  13. most abundant type of tissue in animals
  14. specialized proteins of muscles
    • actin
    • myosin
  15. striated and smooth muscle
    • striated - banded
    • smooth - contracts slowly - remains contracted
  16. 3 types of muscle tissue & where are they located
    • skeletal - attached to bone
    • cardiac - heart
    • smooth - organs
  17. neuron
    conducts electrical signals
  18. function of nervous system
    sense and process stimuli, transmit signals
  19. where are nervous tissues found in the body
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • nerves
  20. nerves do not undergo cell division and can't repair themselves
  21. define organ
    structures composed of 2 or more tissues placed together working together to produce a specific function
  22. organ system
    many organs interact to perform a common function
  23. level of organization starting with cells
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ system
    • organisms
  24. hepatocytes
    liver cells that filter toxic matieral, dead cells, pathogens, drugs and alcohol
  25. functions of the liver
    • synthesizes blood clotting factors
    • detoxifies harmful substances
    • regulates blood volume
    • destroys old blood cells
  26. organ systems and functions
    • digestive
    • excretory
    • respiratory
    • skeletal
    • integumentary
    • cardiovascular
    • endocrine
    • nervous
    • lumphatic and immune
    • reproductive - female
    • reproductive - male
  27. alimentary canal
    digestive tract - allows food to be exposed to actions and secretions of of various organs and transport nutrients
  28. vacuoles
    contain enzymes capable of breaking down biological molecules
  29. salivary amylase and where is it found
    saliva, breaks down food
  30. food's pathway through the body
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophogus
    • stomach
    • small intenstine
    • large intestine
    • anus
  31. Pharynx
    back of throat, goes to trachea and esophagus
  32. epiglottis
    flap of tisue that keeps food from entering trachea
  33. define stomach and what it breaks down
    • large digestive organ
    • where pepsin breaks down protein
  34. peristalsis
    contraction of esophagus that moves food
  35. The stomach has a low PH
  36. what keeps the stomach from damaging itself?
    epithelial cells - secrete mucus
  37. chyme
    digested foods mixed into slurry with digestive enzymes
  38. function of small intestine
    chemical digestion and absorbtion of nutrients into bloodstream
  39. name accessory organs and functions
    • liver - produces bile
    • pancreas - digestive enzymes
    • gallbladder - stores and concentrates bile which is released into small intestine to digest fat
  40. gallstone
    when bile crystalizes due to lack of water
  41. villa
    projections in small intestine that increases surface area
  42. microvilli
    cover villi, transport nutrients
  43. gastrin
    stimulates upper part of stomach to produce gastric juices to facilitate digestion
  44. what hormones are secreted by the duodenum
    secretin and cholecystokin
  45. what 6 items must be kept homeostatic?
    • heartrate
    • blood pressure
    • water and mineral balance
    • temperature
    • blood levels
    • glucose levels
  46. endotherms
    organism with ability to maintain body temp warmer than environment
  47. ectotherms and examples
    organisms that obtain body heat from absorbing from surroundings - reptiles
  48. negative feedback
    when a product of the process inhibits the process
  49. positive feedback
    when the product of process intensifies the process
  50. function of kidneys
    filters liquid waste from blood
  51. 2 main causes of kidney disease
    • diabetes
    • high blood pressure
  52. What makes up the upper respiratory track
    • nasal cavity
    • nose
    • mouth
    • larynx
  53. What makes up the lower respiratory track?
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • lungs
    • diaphragm
  54. how often do you breathe per minute
  55. What muscle controls respiration?
  56. Where is the respiration control center?
    Brain stem
  57. the lungs are lined by two membranes, one covering the lungs and one lining the chest wall
  58. Bronchi
    tubes in lungs, large air passageway from trachea into lungs
  59. alveoli
    sacs inslide lungs, making up respiratory surface in land vertebrae amd some fish
  60. capillaries connect the gas exchange from te alveoli to the rest of the body
  61. a reduction of respiratory surface area causes what symptoms?
    Shortness of breath, wheezing
  62. What is the primary function of the lungs?
    gas exhange - aquire oxygen and expel carbon dioxide
  63. surfactant
    a soap-like substance that keeps the alveoli walls from sticking together
  64. hemoglobin
    respiratory pigment that binds to oxygen, contains iron, inside red blood cells
  65. Why is smoking so detrimental to the human body?
    carbon monixide is inhaled, slows hemoglobin release
  66. particulates
    tiny particles of partially burned tobacco and by-product
  67. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  68. asthma
    allergic response that results in restricted cell walls and overproduction of mucus
  69. emphysema
    lung disease, caused by breakdown of alveoli walls
  70. What percent of lung cancer is found in current or former smokers?
  71. Smoking increases your risk of?
    • lung cancer
    • kidney cancer
    • pancreatic cancer
    • throat cancer
    • bladder cancer
    • heart attack
    • high blood pressure
    • premature aging of skin
    • lung damage
    • airway damage
    • stroke
  72. the cardiovascular system is made up of what 3 components?
    • heart - pump
    • circulatory fluid - blood
    • vacular system - veins
  73. how many liters of blood in an adult body?
  74. What makes up plasma?
    • water
    • dissolved proteins
    • salts
    • gases
  75. the solid portion of blood is made up of what?
    red blood cells, white blood cells, platelettes
  76. why is tobacco smoke bad for platelettes?
    increases stickiness - makes blood clot more readily
  77. what are the four chambers of the heart?
    • left atrium
    • right atrium
    • left ventricle
    • right ventricle
  78. sinoatrial node
    muscle tissue - sends out electrical signal to cause heart to contract- controls heart rate
  79. cardiac cycle
    complete sequence within heart of filling with blood then pumping
  80. capillary bed
    arterial end of a net of capillaries
  81. arteries have thicker more elastic walls than veins
  82. blood pressure is created by what two things?
    • blood from contracting arteries
    • diameter of arteries
  83. pulmonary circuit
    from lungs to heart
  84. open circulatory system
    vessels empty fluid directly into body's tissues
  85. Double circulation
    heart back to lungs for gas exchange
  86. define how gills function
    thins sheets of tissue that rely on constant movement of water past them to bring in oxygen and diffuse carbon dioxide
  87. closed circulatory system
    the circulating blood is maintained in vessels
  88. cardiovascular disease
    heart and blood vessel damage
  89. nicotine
    compound produced by tobacco that is a natural pesticide
  90. stroke
    bockage in artery of blood to the brain
  91. heart attack
    blockage stops flow of blood to part of the heart
  92. four organs of excretory system
    • kidneys
    • ureter
    • bladder
    • uretha
  93. function of kidneys
    filter and clean the circulating blood
  94. nephron
    looped tubes in the kidneys where filtration occurs
  95. 3 steps in the kidneys and what happens
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  96. micturation
    release of urinefrom the bladder
  97. Describe the blood flow of the body
    • 1. oxygenated blood from lungs goes to left atrium
    • 2. contraction of heart forces blood to left ventricle
    • 3. contraction of left vencticle forces blood into blood arteries at high pressure
    • 4. blood flows thru arteries and arterioles into capillaries
    • 5. gas and material exchange occurs in body capillaries
    • 6. capillaries empty into venules, which carry blood to veins and eventually to rt atrium
    • 7. blood is forced into the right ventricle by contraction of the rt atrium
    • 8. contraction of the right ventricle sends blood into vessels in the lungs
  98. Why is iron an important mineral?
    Part of hemoglobin that allows binding of oxygen
  99. List 3 ways body deals with mucus
    sillia, mucus production,
  100. What contributes to venous return?
    Skeletal muscle contraction and one way valves.