The molecule that contains the chemical instrucations for cells to manufacture various proteins
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
One of the 46 molecules of DNA that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes. Other species have more or fewer.
A section of a chromosome and the basic unit for the transmission of heredity, consisting of a string of chemicals that are instrictions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins.
Any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur.
The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species.
A reproductive cell; that is, a sperm of owum that can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from the other sex to make a zygote.
The single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential.
The chromosome pair that, in humans, determines the zygote's sex. The other 22 pairs are autosomes, the same whether the 23rd pair is for a male or a female.
A 23rd chromsome pair that consistes of two X-shaped chromosomes, one each from the mother and the father, XX zygotes become females.
A 23rd chromosome pair that consists of an X-shaped chromosome from the mother and a Y-shaped chromosome from the father, XY zygotes become males.
Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development. Other monozygotic multiple births can occur as well.
The inability to conceive after at least a year of trying to do so via sexual intercourse.
A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
The observable characteristics of a person. including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all the other traits.
Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes.
Referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental.
A gene that has several alleles, each of which contributes to the final phenotype (skin color or height).
The interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than that of the other.
A condition in which an organism has a mixture of cells, some normal and some with an odd number of chromosomes or a series of missing genes.
A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause it a single gene that has more than 200 repititions of one triplet.