Neuro-CH2

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dconhokie
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102300
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Neuro-CH2
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2011-09-18 21:06:04
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Neuro
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Chapter 2 Neuro Vocabulary
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  1. neuron
    The information processiong cell of the nervous system; also called nerve cell.

    Most neurons use action potentials to send signals over a distance, and all neurons communicate with one another using synaptic transmission.
  2. glial cell (24)
    A support cell in the nervous system. Glia are categorized into four categories: astrocytes, oligodendroglia, Schwann cells, and microglia.

    Astrocytes regulate the extracellular environment of the brain, oligodendroglia and Schwann cells provide myelin, and microglia scavage debris.
  3. histology
    the microscopic study of the structure of tissues.
  4. Nissl stain
    A class of basic dyes that stain the somata of neurons.

    Named for its discoverer Franz Nissel.
  5. cytoarchitecture
    The arrangement of neuronal cell bodies in various parts of the brain.
  6. Golgi stain
    A method of staining brain tissue that shows neurons and all of their neurites.

    Named for its discoverer Camillo Golgi.
  7. cell body
    The central region of the neuron containing the nucleus.

    Also called soma or perikaryon.
  8. soma
    THe central region of the neuron containing the nucleus; also called cell body or perikaryon.
  9. perikaryon
    The central region of the neuron; also called the soma or cell body.
  10. neurite
    A thin tube extending from a neuronal cell body; the two types are axons and dendrites.
  11. axon
    A neurite specialized to conduct nerve impulses, or action potentials, normally away from the soma.
  12. dendrite
    A neurite specialized to receive synaptic inputs from other neurons.
  13. neuron doctrine
    THe concept that the neuron is the elementary functional unit of the brain, and that neurons communicate with each other by contact, not continuity.
  14. cytosol
    The watery fluid inside the cell.
  15. organelle
    A membrane enclosed structure inside a cell; examples are nucleus, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus.
  16. cytoplasm
    Cellular material contained by the cell membrane, including the organelles but excluding the nucleus.
  17. nucleus
    1) The roughly spherical organelle in a cell body containing the chromosomes.

    2) A clearly distinguishable mass of neurons, usually deep in the brain.
  18. chromosome
    A structure in the cell nucleus containing a single linear thread of DNA.
  19. DNA
    (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    A double stranded molecule constructed from 4 nucleic acids that contains the genetic instructions for a cell.
  20. gene
    A unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA that encodes a single polypeptide or protein.
  21. gene expression
    The process of transcribing the information from a gene into messenger RNA; a gene is a segment of DNA carrying the instructions for a single protein.
  22. protein
    A polymer of amino acids strung together by peptide bonds.
  23. protein synthesis
    The assembly of protein molecules in the cell's cytoplasm according to genetic instructions.
  24. mRNA
    (messenger ribonucleic acid)
    A molecule constructed from four nucleic acids that carries the genetic instructions for the assembly of a protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  25. transcription
    The process of synthesizing a messenger RNA molecule according to genetic instructions encoded in DNA.
  26. promoter
    A region of DNA that binds RNA polymerase to initiate gene transcription.
  27. transcription factor
    A protein that regulates the binding of RNA polymerase to a gene promoter.
  28. RNA splicing
    The process by which introns, the regions of a primary RNA transcript that are not used to code protein, are removed.
  29. amino acid
    A chemical building block of protein molecules, containing a central carbon atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable R group.
  30. translation
    The process of synthesizing a protein molecule according to genetic instructions carried by a messenger RNA molecule.
  31. ribosome
    A cellular organelle that assembles new proteins from amino acids according to the instructions carried by messenger RNA.
  32. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    (rough ER)
    A membrane enclosed cellular organelle with ribosomes attached to it's outer surface;

    a site of synthesis for proteins destined to be inserted into membrane, or to be enclosed by membrane.
  33. polyribosome
    A collection of several ribosomes loating freely in the cytoplasm.
  34. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    (smooth ER)
    A membrane enclosed cellular organelle that is heterogeneous and performs different functions in different locations.
  35. Golgi apparatus
    An organelle that sorts and chemically modifies proteins that are destined for delivery to different parts of the cell.
  36. mitochondrion
    An organelle responsible for cellular respiration. Mitochondria generate adenosine triphosphate using the energy produced by the oxidation of food.
  37. ATP
    (adenosine triphosphate)
    THe molecule that is the cell's energy source. The hydrolysis of ATP to produce ADP releases energy that fuels most of the biochemical reactions of the neuron. ADP is converted back to ATP in the mitochondria.
  38. neuronal membrane
    THe barrier, about 5 nm thick, that separates the inside of a nerve cell from the outside; consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it; encloses the intracellular organelles and vesicles.
  39. cytoskeleton
    The internal scaffolding that gives a cell it's characteristic shape; consists of microtubules, neurofilaments, and microfilaments.
  40. microtubule
    A polymer of the protein tubulin, forming a straight, hollow tube, 20nm in diameter.

    Microtubules, a component of the cytoskeleton, play an important role in axoplasmic transport.
  41. microfilament
    A polymer of the protein actin, forming a braided strand 5nm in diameter;

    A component of the cytoskeleton.
  42. neurofilament
    A type of intermediate filament found in neurons, 10nm in diameter; an important component of the neural cytoskeleton.
  43. axon hillock
    A swelling of the axon where it joins the soma.
  44. axon collateral
    A branch of the axon
  45. axon terminal
    The end region of an axon usually a site of synaptic contact with another cell; also called terminal bouton or presynaptic terminal.
  46. terminal bouton
    The end region of an axon; usually a site of synaptic contact with another cell; also called axon terminal.
  47. synapse
    THe region of contact where neuron transfers information to another cell.
  48. terminal arbor
    Branches at the end of an axon terminating in the same region of the nervous system.
  49. innervation
    THe provision of synaptic input to a cell or collection of cells.
  50. synaptic vesicle
    A membrane enclosed structure, about 50nm in diameter, containing neurotransmitter, and found at a site of synaptic contact.
  51. synaptic cleft
    THe region separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of neurons.
  52. synaptic transmission
    the process of transferring information from one cell to another at a synapse.
  53. neurotransmitter
    A chemical released by a presynaptic element upon stimulation that activates postsynaptic receptors.
  54. axoplasmic transport
    Process of transporting materials down an axon.
  55. anterograde transport
    Axoplasmic transport from a neuron's soma, to the axon terminal.
  56. dentritic tree
    All the dendrites of a single neuron.
  57. receptor
    (1) A specialized protein that detects chemical signals, such as neurotransmitters, and initiates a cellular response.
  58. (2) A specialized cell that detects environmental stimuli and generates neural responses.
  59. dendrtitc spine
    A small sac of membrane that protrudes from the dendrites of some cells and receives synaptic input.
  60. unipolar neuron
    A neuron with a single neurite.
  61. bipolar neuron
    A neuron with 2 neurites.
  62. multipolar neuron
    A neuron with three or more neurites.
  63. stellate cell
    A neuron characterized by a radial, star-like distribution of dendrites.
  64. pyramidal cell
    A neuron characterized by a pyramid shaped cell body, and elongated dendritic tree; found in the cerebral cortex.
  65. spiny neuron
    A neuron with dendritic spines.
  66. aspinous neuron
    A neuron lacking dendritic spines.
  67. primary sensory neuron
    A neuron specialized to detect environmental signals at the body's sensory surfaces.
  68. motor neuron
    A neuron that synapses on a muscle cell.
  69. interneuron
    Any neuron that is not a motor or sensory neuron; also describes a CNS neuron whose axon does not leave the structure in which it resides.
  70. astrocyte
    A glial cell in the brain that supports neurons and regulates the extracellular ionic and chemical environment.
  71. oligodendroglial cell
    A glial cell that provides myelin in the central nervous system.
  72. Schwann cell
    A glial cell that provides myelin in the peripheral nervous system.
  73. myelin
    A membranous wrapping or sheath around axons provided by oligodendroglia in the central nervous system, and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
  74. node of Ranvier
    A space between two consecutive myelin sheaths where an axon comes in contact with the extracellular fluid.
  75. ependymal cell
    A type of glial cell that provides the lining of the brain's ventricular system.
  76. microglial cell
    A type of cell that functions as a phagocyte in the nervous system to remove debris left by dead or dying neurons and glia.

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