Micro chapt 1

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flowerchic
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102304
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Micro chapt 1
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2011-09-18 10:32:14
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Microbiology
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Microbiology chapter 1
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  1. Alexander Fleming
    Scottish physician who accidentally discovered the antibiotic penicillin (1928)
  2. Antibiotic
    an antimicrobial agent usually produced naturally by a bacterium or fungus
  3. Anton Von Leeuwenhock
    a dutch maker of microscopes "the father of microbiology" whose observations of living microscopic organisms were published from 1673-1723
  4. aseptic techniques
    laboratory techniques used to minimize contamination
  5. Biogenesis
    the theory that living cells arise only from pre-existing cells
  6. Cell Theory
    all living organisms are composed of cells and arise from pre-existing cell
  7. chemotherapy
    treatment of disease with chemical substances
  8. Dimitri Iwanowski
    a russian botanist who showed that when sap from infected tobacco mosaic plants was passed thru a filter known to remove all bacteria, the filtered sap could still infect other plants (1892) ~Virus
  9. Edward Jenner
    English physician who discovered that people vaccinated with cowpox were protected from small pox (1798)
  10. Fermentation
    • the enzymatic degredation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule; ATP is synthesized by substrate lvl phophorylation and O2 is not required
    • (microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air)
  11. Francesco Redi
    Italian Physician who designed the rotting meat experiment in 1668 to refute spontaneous generation
  12. The Germ Theory of Disease
    the principle that microorganisms cause disease
  13. John Neeham
    English clergyman who supported spontaneous generation in 1745, he poured boiled chicken broth into flasks and then sealed them; microorganisms grew.
  14. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    Italian priest who refuted spontaneous generatin in 1765, he modified Needham's experiments by sealing flasks containing broth, then boiling the broth: NO microorganisms grew
  15. Louis Pasteur
    • french chemist who refuted spontaneous generation. In 1861 he designed an experiment that incorporated methods from Needhams & Spallanzani's exp. He boiled the broth in the flask (spallanzani's) & bent the neck of the flask into an "S"-shaped curve, allowing air to enter (Needham) NO microorganisms grew
    • He also demonstrated that fermentation of sugar to alchohol (beer/wine production) was due to yeast. 1857. The souring of beer & wine was due to the presence of bacteria. He developed pasteurization (1864); the heating of sugar solution to kill the bacteria & prevent spoilage of beverages.
  16. Microorganism
    a living organism to small to be seen with the naked eye; includes: bacteria, fungi, protozoa & microsopic algae, also includes viruses
  17. Pasteurization
    the process of mild heating to kill spoilage microorganisms or pathogens
  18. Paul Ehrlich
    germanphysician who discovered the "magic bullet". salversan: a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent for syphillis (1910)
  19. Rudolf Virchow
    German scientist who proposed the "cell theory" (1858) which refutes spontaneous generation by stating that "living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells"
  20. spontaneous generation
    the idea that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
  21. Synthetic drug
    a chemotherapeutic agent that is prepared from chemicals in a lab
  22. Virology
    the scientific study of viruses
  23. Wendell Stanley
    american biochemist discovered that the agent that caused tobacco mosaic virus was so chemically simple and homogeneous that it could be crystallized like a chemical compound (1935)
  24. Robert Koch
    a german dr who discovered that the disease antrhax was caused by a specific bacterium~Bacillus anthracis~ (1876) his research provided evidence for the germ theory of disease
  25. Robert Hooke
    English natural philosopher who coined the term "cell" in 1665 after observing plant cells with a microscope
  26. Who finally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation?
    A.Hooke
    B. Koch
    C. Pasteur

    D.van Leeuwenhoek
    C. Pasteur
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Which of the following is not a beneficial activity of microorganisms?
    A. Photosynthesis
    B. Vitamin K synthesis
    C.. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (aids)
    D. Bread production
    C. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Who observed cells in plant material?
    A. Hooke

    B. Pasteur
    C.van Leeuwenhoek
    D. Koch
    A. Hooke
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Regarding Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is not true?
    A.any possibility of contamination was removed.
    B. there was a food source involved
    C. Most of the microorganisms were killed before beginning
    D. There was air involved.
    C. most of the microorganisms were killed before the beginning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Who was the first to observe microorganisms with a microscope?
    A. Hooke
    B. van Leeuwenhoek
    C. Pasteur
    D. Koch
    B. van Leeuwenhoek
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following findings was essential for Jenner's vaccination process?
    A. a weakened microorganism may produce immunity
    B. Disease is caused by viruses
    C. a weakened microorganism will not cause disease
    D. someone who recovers from a disease will not acquire that disease again
    A. a weakend microorganism may produce immunity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which of the following requirements was not necessary for Pasteur to disprove spontaneous generation?
    a. Providing a food source that would support growth
    b.keeping microorganisms out

    c. supplying air
    d. keeping the microorganisms that were initially present
    d. keeping the microorganisms that were initially present
  33. Who proved that microorganisms cause disease?
    A. Hooke
    B. Pasteur
    C. Koch
    D. van Leeuwenhoek
    C. Koch
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which ofthe following is probably true about all the experiments that proved spontaneous generation?
    A. air was lacking

    B. the food source could not support life
    C. to much heat was applied
    D. microorganisms were already present
    D. micoorganisms were already present
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Pasteurization was first developed to kill ___________ in wine.
    A. antibiotic producing bacteria
    B. all bacteria
    C. spoilage bacteria

    D. disease causing bacteria
    C. spoilage bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. In Pasteur's swan neck flask experiment, the importance of the S-shaped curves in the flasks was two fold. The curves allowed air to enter, and yet excluded:
    A. Oxygen
    B. Heat
    C. Broth
    D. Airborne bacteria
    D. airborne bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. An exposure to_____________protects against infection with smallpox.
    A. Normal microbiota

    B. Penicillin
    C. Cowpox
    D.Chemotherapy
    C. cowpox
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. How would you recognize an antibiotic-producing soil bacterium on a plate crowded with other bacteria? The bacterial colony producing the antibiotic would be:
    A. Characterized by pseudopods
    B. Pigmented
    C. surrounded by a clear area
    D. visible as masses called mycelia
    C. surrounded by a clear area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. In 1668, he demonstrated that maggots appeared only in decaying meat that had been exposed to flies.
    Francesco Redi
  40. Introduced the conept that living cells arise from other living cells.
    Rudolf Virchow
  41. Introduced the technique of vaccination for small pox.
    Edward Jenner
  42. First to use the microscope to observe "cells."
    Robert Hooke
  43. First to speculate about the possibility of a "magic bullet"that would destroy a pathogen without harming the host.
    Paul Ehrlich
  44. Discovered penicillin
    Alexander Fleming
  45. Showed that mild heating of spirits kills spoilage bacteria without damage to the beverage.
    Louis Pasteur

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