Psychology Ch.6

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bry2011
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102310
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Psychology Ch.6
Updated:
2011-09-17 18:13:38
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Chapter review
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Learning
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  1. What is Learning?
    Defined in psychology is more than listening to teachers, honing skateboard jumps, or mastering the use of an ipod. From the behaviorist persoective, learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience.
  2. What is Classical conditioning?
    Is a simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events.
  3. What is Stimulus?
    An enviromental cindition that elicits a response.
  4. What is Unconditional stimulus (UCS)?
    A stimulus that elicits a response from an organisms prior to conditioning.
  5. What is Unconditional response (UCR)?
    An unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus.
  6. What is Orienting reflex?
    An unlearned response in which an organism attends to a stimulus.
  7. What is Conditioning stimulis (CS)?
    A previously neutrol stimulas that elicits a conditioned response because it has been paired repeatedly with a stimulus that already e;eicited that response.
  8. What is Conditioned Response (CR)?
    In classical conditioning , a learned response to a conditioned stimulas.
  9. What is Exctinction?
    An experimental procedure in which stimuli lose their ability to evoke learned responses because the events that had followed the stimuli no longer ocur.
  10. What is Spontaneous recovery?
    The recurrence of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of time.
  11. What is Generalization?
    In conditioning, the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned.
  12. What is Discrimination?
    In conditioning, the tendency for an organism to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not forecast an unconditioned stimulus.
  13. What is Higher-order conditioning?
    A previously neutral stimulus (for example, hearing the word stove or seeing the adult who had done the tickling enter the room) comes to serve as a learned or conditioned stimulus after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already became a learned or conditioned stimulus (for example, seeing the stove or hearing the phrase "kitchie-coo").
  14. What is Counterconditioning?
    A fear-reduction technique in which pleasant stimuli are associated with fear-evoking stimuli so that fear-evoking stimuli lose their aversive qualities.
  15. What is Flooding?
    A behavioral fear-reduction technique based on principles of classical conditioning. Fear-evoking stimuli (CSs) are presented continuously in the absence of actual harm so that fear responses (CRs) are extinguished.
  16. What is System desensitization?
    A behavior fear-reduction technique in which a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli is presented while the person remains relaxed.
  17. What is Reinforce?
    To fallow a response with stimulus that increases the frequency of the response.
  18. What is Operant behavior?
    Voluntary responses that are reinforced.
  19. What is Operant conditioned?
    A simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced.
  20. What is Positive rienforcer?
    A rienforcer that when presented increases the frequency of an operant.
  21. What is Negative rienforcer?
    A rienforver that when removed increases the frequency of an operant.
  22. What is Primary rienforcer?
    An unlearned reinforcer.
  23. What is Secondary reinforcer?
    A stimulus that gains rienforcement value through associated with established rienforcers.
  24. What is Conditional reinforcer?
    Another term for a secondary reinforcer.
  25. What is Reward?
    A pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it fallows.
  26. What is Punishment?
    An unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it fallows.
  27. What is Time out?
    Removal of an organism from a situation in which reinforcement is available when unwanted behavior is shown.
  28. What is Discriminative stimulus?
    In operant conditioning, a stimulus that indicates that reinforcement is available.
  29. What is Continuous reinforement?
    A scheduale of rienforcement in which every correct response is rienforced.
  30. What is Partial rienforcement?
    One of several rienforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced.
  31. What is Fixed-interval rienforcement?
    A scheduale on which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available.
  32. What is Variable-interval scheduale?
    A scheduale in which a variable amount of time must elapse between the previous and subseqiuent times that reinforcement is available.
  33. What is Variable-ratio scheduale?
    A scheduale in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses.
  34. What is Fixed-ratio scheduale?
    A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses.
  35. What is Shaping?
    A procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforces approximations of the target behavior.
  36. What is Successive approximations?
    Behaviors that are progressivley closer to a target behavior.
  37. What is Latent?
    Hidden or concealed.
  38. What is Contingency theory?
    The view that learning occurs when stimuli provide information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli.
  39. What is Observational learning?
    the acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others ( who are called models) rather than by means of direct experience.
  40. What is Model?
    An organism that engages in a response that is then imitated by another organism.

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