The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Slaugter of Hueguenot nobles in Paris at Queen Catherine's daughter's wedding to Hueguenot prince Henry of Navarre.
Henry of Navarre
Robust, athletic, handsome, decisive, fearless in battle, clever politician.
Henry of Navarre after Catherine and her last son died.
To end the religious wars and gain support of his Catholic opponents.
Why did Henry give up Protestantism for Catholicism?
Edict of Nantes
A 1598 declaration in which the French king Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
- Strong minister appointed by Louis XIII to help him rule.
- De facto ruler of France.
- Hard-working leader of Catholic church in France.
- Ambitious, enjoyed exercising power.
- Pursued his own political ambitions.
Spain, Austria, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire.
Moved against Huguenots.
How did Richelieu increase the power of the Bourbon dynasty?
- Ordered nobles to take down castles.
- Replaced nobles as government agents with middle class workers to weaken the nobles.
How did Richelieu try to weaken the nobles' power?
Involved Francce in the Thirty Years' War to reduce power of the surrounding Hapsburg countries.
How did Richelieu try to make France the strongest state in Europe?
A philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be knnown for certain.
- They believed nothing could ever be known for sure.
- Doubted Church claims of holding the truth.
- Became first step toward finding the truth.
Why did writers turn toward skepticism?
Michel de Montaigne
Creator of the essay.
To communicate his personal thoughts, opinions, and ideas about life's meaning.
Why did Montaigne develop the essay?
What is true changes everytime a new belief arises.
Why did Montaigne believe that there would never be absolute knowledge of what is true?
- Brilliant thinker.
He created a philosophy after answering the arguements with his observations and reasoning.
How did Rene Descartes contribute to the debate about the ability to determine absolute truth?
- Louis XIII's son.
- Only 4 years old when he took the throne.
- Richelieu's successor.
- Ruled until Louis was of age.
- Ended Thirty Years' War.
Claimed he and the state were one and the same.
What led to Louis XIV becoming the strongest king of him time?
- High taxes & the stong central government.
- Violence led by nobles threatened Louis' life (led to Louis' desire to become strong enough to never be threatened).
Why were nobles against Mazarin?
- Leaders of nobles distrusted each other.
- Monarchy violently fought back.
- Commoners tired of disorder & war.
Why did the nobles' rebellion fail?
- Excluded nobles from his councils.
- Increase government agents (intendants) who collected taxes & administered justice.
- Required local officials to communicate regularly with him.
What did Louis do after he took over the throne from Cardinal Mazarin?
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Minister of finance
To prevent wealth from leaving the country, he required everything possible to be manufactured within France rather than importing from the colonies.
How did Jean Baptiste Colbert help Louis attain economic success?
- Government funds and tax benefits given to manufacturing.
- Protected industry with high tariffs on imports.
- Encouraged migration to Canada to increase colonial trade wealth.
How did Colbert expand manufacturing and protect France's industries?
Canceling the Edict of Nantes caused prosperous Huguenots to flee France.
What did Louis do after Colbert's death?
Louis surrounded himself with luxury; every meal was a feast.
How well did Louis live?
- Wrote comedies.
- One of Louis' favorite writers.
- Made them dependent on him.
- Kept them from their homes giving intendants more power.
- (Nobles lived at Versailles Palace w/ Louis)
How did having nobles at the palace increase noble authority?
Treaty of Nijmegen
Ended the war between Louis and the Spanish and Dutch Netherlands.
It was so big, it was like a small royal palace.
What made Verailles an impressive palace?
France had more people than England and the Dutch republic and a stronger army.
Why was France the most powerful country in Europe at this time?
- Spanish Netherlands = won 12 towns.
- Dutch Netherlands = lost when Dutch flooded countryside by opening dikes.
- Treaty of Nijmegen gave France several towns and region of Franch-Comte.
How did Louis attempt to expand France's boundaries?
A Europeanwide alliance was created to maintain a balance of power.
How were Louis' military campaigns of the 1680s stopped?
William of Orange (king of England) joined with the leaders of Austria, Sweden, Spain, and other smaller European states. League of Augburg.
How did smaller states band together to equal the power of France?
Poor harvests and constant warfare.
What led to suffering in France?
Louis XIV's grandon (Philip of Anjou) took over the throne from Charles II.
How did both France and Spain come to be ruled by a Bourbon family member?
Joined together and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession.
How did the countries of Europe respond to this increase in Bourbon power?
Treaty of Utrecht (1714) allowed Philip to keep the throne as long as France and Spain were not united.
What was the purpose of the Treaty of Utrecht?
Took Gibraltar and was granted an asiento.
Why did GB turn out to be the big winner?
- GB took Nova Scotia and Newfoundland.
- France gave up claims to Hudson Bay.
- Austrians took Spanish Netherlands and Spanish land in Italy.
- Prussia and Savoy became independent.
What land did GB win?
How did the French react to Louis' death?
- France was strong.
- High rank in art, literature, statesmanship.
- France was military leader of Europe - for colony building.
What positive legacy did Louis leave to his country?
- Constant warfare.
- Huge debt caused by Versailles.
- Tax burdens plagued future rulers.
How did Louis negatively impact France?