Biochemistry Mini1Part1

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Biochemistry Mini1Part1
2011-09-18 23:42:36
Biochemistry Mini1 Part1

Biochemistry Mini1 Part1
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  1. Propyl hydroxylase deficiency
    • Vitamin C def
    • lack of hydroxylation of proline and lysine
    • no hydroxy pro/lysine no collegen
  2. AA important in collegon formation
    • lysine - terminal NH2 with hydroxylation
    • pro - middle carbon with terminal nitrogen ring with hydroxylation
  3. alpha amanitins
    • toxin/poision that destroys RNA poly function
    • poly II gets it worst
    • Poly III medium
    • Poly I most resistant
  4. RNA Poly I
    Makes rRNA
  5. RNA poly II
    makes mRNA
  6. RNA Poly III
    makes tRNA
  7. Ricin
    • N-Glycosidase
    • removes adenine purine from sugar backbone at 28s (part of 60s) rRNA
    • stops the function of rRNA and thus cell function
  8. 60s and 18s
    60s = 28s 5.8s 5s
  9. MIDD
    • maternally inhereted diabetes and defness
    • mitochondrial tRNA disease
    • unfunctioning tRNA(leu)
    • Cardiomyopathy and diabetes
  10. Mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis stroke like episodes (MELAS)
    • blindness and diabetes
    • lack of a tRNA(leu)
  11. tRNA (leu) deficiency disease
    • MIDD and MELAS (MITO ATP decrease)
    • diabetes and deafness
    • decrease leucine (important complex 1 building block)
    • decrease ATP production
  12. Promotors
    • TATA and CAT
    • binding site for transcription factors
  13. enhancers
    • binding site for activators
    • can be up or downstream but is usually far away
  14. transcription factors
    • activator upregulate transcription factor powers
    • transcription factors recruit polymerase and all that stuff
  15. LCR
    • locus control region
    • controls general transcription of genes through opening of euchromatins by removal of H1 linker and histones
  16. RNA Poly II C terminus
    • attachment sight of post-translational modification proteins
    • splizasomes
    • Rat exonuclease
    • polyadenalytion
  17. UTR
    • untranslated region
    • included in final mRNA product before and after ATG/poly A tail
  18. intron donor acceptor sites
    acceptor GU ----intron---- AG donar
  19. mRNA final product circle
    • poly A tail + 5' cap region
    • linked by poly A binding protein (PBP)
  20. eEF vs eIF
    • eElongation factor, used to tRNA transfer of amino acids
    • eInitiation factor, used for initiation of translation by binding to complex
    • eEF depurination = ricin poisioning
    • eEF 2 riboxylation = diptheria
    • eIF phosphorylation = polio virus growth stragegy
  21. pepdyle transferase
    • formation of peptide bonds between amino acids
    • function of 28s ribosome
  22. chlorampheniol vs cyclohexamide
    • prokaryotic and eukaryotic peptide transferase inhibitor
    • antibiotic and cancer drugs respectivly
  23. Aconitase
    • Ferritin and transferrin translation regulatior
    • aconitase binding to mRNA upregulate transferrin
    • Iron binding aconitase releases it from mRNA and upregulate Ferritin
  24. eIF2 regulation
    without DNA erythrocytes regulate globin (of heme-globin) translation by phosphorylation of eIF2 reducing the translation rate
  25. eIF4G regulation
    • Poli virus stop native translation of protein by cleaving eIF4G which attaches the 40S subunit to mRNA 5'cap.
    • Viral proteins has a IRES (internal ribosome entry site) which allows binding of the translation complex independent of 5' cap proteins
  26. 5- bromal uricil
    • DNA mutation from thymine that produces reguar pairing but
    • tautermization induces permiscious pairing
  27. aflatoxin
    liver p450 enzyme catalyzed mutation of aflatoxin and gunine compound
  28. AP endonuclease
    fixes depurination and deamination (with help from glycosylase to turn it into a depurination) by removing the depurinated sugar base
  29. Nucleotide excession repair
    • for UV damaged dimerized DNA
    • excession of long strand containing the dimerized bases
  30. Xeroderma pigmentosum
    • lack of excession repair
    • excessive UV damage can't be repired
    • skin cancer
  31. Cockayne syndrome
    • lack transcriptional coupled repair system
    • accelerated aging
    • mental retardating and senality
  32. Lynch Syndrom
    • Hereditary none polypsis colon cancer
    • autosomal domaint - only one is affected but somatic cell mutation on the single working gene will turn cell into mutator
    • Thus fast replicating cells are highly suseptable
    • post-replication mismatch pair repair defect
  33. Ataxia- Telangietasia
    • rapid aging, ImDef, dilation of small blood vessels (telagiectasia), ataxia (bad movement control)
    • no double strand break repair system