cell structures and functions.txt

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  1. Cell Membrane
    Surrounds all cells, regulates the passage of materials in and out of the cell.
  2. Cell Wall
    Found only in plants, it is a structure that surrounds and protects the plant cells-- supports and provides shape-- made of cellulose (polysaccharides)
  3. Nucleus
    Large, usually circular organelle that carries Chromosomes and controls cell division. Control center of cell.
  4. Nuclear Membrane
    Surrounds Nucleus-- controls movement of material in and out of Nucleus.
  5. Nucleolus
    Center of Nucleus. Makes Ribosomes.
  6. Chromatin
    Fine strands of DNA found in the Nucleus.
  7. Chromosome
    Chromatin that has thickened for cell reproduction.
  8. Cytoplasm
    A fluid that takes up space between organelles. Filled with microtubules and filaments that hold the structure for the cell. Jelly-like.
  9. Vacuoles
    Storage sacs of the cell-- hold water and food.
  10. Ribosomes
    Site where proteins are made (protein factory). Made of RNA. DNA instructs ribosomes which proteins to make.
  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Two types: Rough and smooth.
    • Involved with the transport of proteins.
    • Often called protein plumbing.
  12. Golgi Bodies
    • Takes/transports vesicles from the Endoplasmic Reticulum then moves them outside of cell.
    • Layered trash sacs in cell-- waste and proteins.
  13. Lysosomes
    • Filled with enzymes-- break down proteins for digestion (breaks down proteins for cell structure)
    • Suicide sacs-- if one bursts, it will digest itself.
  14. Mitochondria
    Takes fuel and turns it into energy for the cell. (Location for cellular respiration).
  15. Cristae
    Folded surfaces inside Mitochondria that increase work area in less space.
  16. Plastids
    Only found in plants. Stores pigments. Chloroplasts make plants green (chlorophyll)
  17. Cilia
    Hair-like projections on cell membrane that help it move.
  18. Flagella
    Long tail used in locomotion.
  19. Centrioloes
    Animal cells only: Used in cell reproduction.
Card Set:
cell structures and functions.txt
2011-09-17 21:50:44
cell structures biology

Unit 2 of Biology, Cell Structures and Functions
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