BIOL 223 - Chapter 1

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christophertkennedy
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BIOL 223 - Chapter 1
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2011-09-17 17:59:27
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anatomy physiology chapter one
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Study cards for Chapter 1 - BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. Define anatomy.
    The study of the structures and names of body parts.
  2. True or False: Structure dictates function.
    True
  3. A change in ________ results in a change in function.
    structure
  4. The anatomy of things you can see with the naked eye is known as:
    gross anatomy
  5. The study of superficial markings is known as:
    surface anatomy
  6. Regional anatomy examines structures located in a:
    localized or certain area
  7. The study of the structures of organ systems is called:
    systemic anatomy
  8. The focus on structural changes from conception through physical maturity is known as:
    developmental anatomy
  9. Clinical anatomy is anatomy used in a clinical setting in order to:
    detect disease or other pathology
  10. What are the two subfields of microscopic anatomy discussed in class?
    • cytology
    • histology
  11. Cytology is the study of what?
    the anatomy and structure of cells
  12. The study of tissues is known as:
    histology
  13. Define physiology.
    The study of how the body performs vital functions.
  14. Cell physiology is the study of:
    the function of various types of cells
  15. The examination of the function of organs is known as:
    organ physiology
  16. Studying the function of the cardiovascular system as a whole is known as:
    systemic physiology
  17. Pathological physiology is the study of:
    the function of disease and how it makes us sick
  18. List the levels of organization from smallest to largest.
    • 1) atom
    • 2) molecule
    • 3) cells
    • 4) tissue
    • 5) organs
    • 6) organ system
    • 7) organism
  19. Two or more cell types functioning towards a common purpose create what?
    tissue
  20. Two or more types of tissue that function together for a common purpose create what?
    organs
  21. What are the four major organs of the integumentary system discussed in class?
    • skin
    • hair
    • nails
    • sweat glands
  22. What are the three primary functions of the integumentary system discussed in class?
    • protection
    • temperature regulation
    • sensory information
  23. What are the two major organs of the muscular system discussed in class?
    • muscles
    • tendons
  24. Which tissue connects muscle to bone, tendons or ligaments?
    tendons
  25. What are the three functions of the muscular system discussed in class?
    • protection
    • movement
    • heat production
  26. What are the four major organs of the skeletal system discussed in class?
    • bones
    • ligaments
    • cartilage
    • marrow
  27. What type of tissue connects bone to bone, tendons or ligaments?
    ligaments
  28. List the five functions of the skeletal system discussed in class.
    • protection
    • structure
    • movement
    • blood production
    • mineral storage
  29. What are the four major organs of the nervous system discussed in class?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • neurons/nerves
    • sense organs/receptors
  30. What are the four functions of the nervous system discussed in class?
    • control all other systems
    • interpret sensory information
    • issue commands in response to stimuli
    • higher order brain function
  31. In addition to the lungs, trachea, and bronchi/bronchioes, what were the other three major organs of the respiratory system discussed in class?
    • sinuses
    • nasal cavities
    • alveoli
  32. What were the four functions of the respiratory system discussed in class?
    • respiration - exchange of gases
    • conditioning of air
    • speech/vocalization
    • regulates pH
  33. The thyroid, pineal gland, suprarenal glands, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries/testes, and thymus are part of which organ system?
    the endocrine system
  34. What is the major function of the endocrine system?
    hormone production
  35. What are the three major organs of the cardiovascular system discussed in class?
    • heart
    • blood vessels
    • blood
  36. What are the two primary functions of the cardiovascular system discussed in class?
    • transportation of gases and nutrients
    • distribution of heat
  37. What are the three major compenents of the digestive system found in the oral cavity?
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
  38. List the nine organs of the digestive system discussed in class.
    • oral cavity
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • intestines
    • rectum
    • anus
    • liver
    • gall bladder
    • pancreas
  39. What are the two primary functions of the digestive system?
    • digestion
    • waste elimination
  40. What are the three functions of digestion?
    • the mechanical breakdown of food into smaller pieces
    • the chemical breakdown of food into components
    • the absorbtion of nutrients
  41. What are the four major organs of the urinary system?
    • kidneys
    • bladder
    • urethra
    • ureters
  42. What are the four functions of the urinary system discussed in class?
    • blood filtration
    • maintain H2O balance
    • pH balance
    • regulate blood pressure
  43. What are the six organs of the male reproductive system discussed in class?
    • penis
    • testicles
    • prostate gland
    • vas deferens
    • epididymus
    • scrotum
  44. What are the three functions of the male reproductive system discussed in class?
    • production of sperm
    • hormone production
    • sexual reproduction
  45. What are the five organs of the female reproductive system discussed in class?
    • vagina
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
    • ovaries
    • mammary glands
  46. What are the six functions of the female reproductive system discussed in class?
    • production of oocytes
    • hormone production
    • sexual reproduction
    • embryonic support
    • childbirth
    • lactation
  47. What are the two primary hormones produced by the female reproductive system?
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  48. The lymphatic system is more commonly known as the:
    immune system
  49. What are the six organs of the lymphatic system discussed in class?
    • lymph
    • lymph nodes
    • lymphatic vessels
    • thymus
    • spleen
    • tonsils
  50. What is the primary function of the lymphatic system?
    detect and combat pathogens
  51. Define homeostasis.
    the maintenanace of a stable and constant environment
  52. When an organ maintains homeostasis on it's own, with no control from the nervous or endocrine systems it exhibits what type of regulation?
    intrinsic regulation
  53. When an organ, or organ system, responds to control from the nervous and/or endocrine systems, it exhibits what type of regulation?
    extrinsic regulation
  54. Responses from the nervous system tend to be _______ and _______.
    quick and short-acting
  55. Responses from the endocrine system tend to be _______ and _______.
    slow and longer lasting
  56. What are the three components of a homeostatic system?
    • receptor
    • control center
    • effector
  57. The component of a homeostatic system that monitors the environment for change is known as the:
    receptor
  58. The component of a homeostatic system that interprets information from the receptor and issues a response is the:
    control center
  59. The component of a homeostatic system the receives commands from the control center and returns the system to homeostasis is the:
    effector
  60. In a typical home air conditioning system, the thermometer is which compenent of the homeostatic system?
    the receptor
  61. What are the two types of feedback control?
    • negative feedback
    • positive feedback
  62. When a response is opposite of the initial change in environment it is said to be _______ feedback.
    negative
  63. If the body experiences a drop in body temperature, the negative feedback response will be an:
    increase in body temperature
  64. When a response enhances the initial change in environment it is said to be _______ feedback.
    positive
  65. What are the only two examples of positive feedback loops in the human body?
    • blood clotting
    • birthing contractions
  66. What does it mean if someone is said to be in anatomical position?
    their body is facing forward with palms facing forward
  67. Which directional term, superior or inferior means "towards the skull?"
    superior
  68. Which directional term, superior or inferior means "towards the feet?"
    inferior
  69. Which directional term, anterior or posterior means "frontal or chest surface?"
    anterior
  70. Which directional term, anterior or posterior means "dorsal or back surface?"
    posterior
  71. The line drawn through the center of the body from head to ground is known as the:
    midline
  72. The directional term that means "towards the midline" is:
    medial
  73. The directional term that means "away from the midline" is:
    lateral
  74. The directional term that references the appendages and means "towards the attached base" is:
    proximal
  75. The directional term that references the appendages and means "away from the attached base" is:
    distal
  76. What are two examples of "attached bases" in human appendages?
    • shoulders
    • hips
  77. List the four anatomical quadrants.
    • left upper
    • right upper
    • left lower
    • right lower
  78. The stomach is found in which anatomical quadrant?
    the left upper
  79. The liver is found in which anatomical quadrant?
    the right upper
  80. List the upper three anatomical regions.
    • left hypochondriac
    • epigastric
    • right hypochondriac
  81. List the middle three anatomical regions.
    • left lumbar
    • umbillical
    • right lumbar
  82. List the lower three anatomical regions.
    • left inguinal
    • pubic
    • right inguinal
  83. How will a sagittal plane split the body?
    into left and right portions
  84. How will a transverse plane split the body?
    into superior and inferior portions
  85. How will a frontal plane split the body?
    into anterior and posterior portions
  86. The ventral body cavity is divided into what two cavities?
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominopelvic cavity
  87. What structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?
    the diagphragm
  88. What are the three sub-sections of the thoracic cavity?
    • left plueral cavity
    • right plueral cavity
    • mediastinum
  89. What major structures/organs can be found in the thoracic cavity?
    • the plueral cavities contain the lungs
    • the mediastinum contains the heart
  90. What two cavities are found with the abdominopelvic cavity?
    • the abdominal cavity
    • the pelvic cavity

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