Chapter 1 Terms.txt

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Chapter 1 Terms.txt
2010-03-13 05:59:18
Chemistry Terms

Chemistry Terms Chapter 1
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  1. What are the Alkali Metals?
    • Those in Group IA except Hydrogen
    • Lithium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Rubidium
    • Cesium
    • Francium
  2. What are the Alkali Earth Metals?
    • Those in Group IIA
    • Beryllium
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
    • Strontium
    • Barium
    • Radium
  3. What is analytical chemistry?
    Analytical chemistry involves finding which elements or compounds are present in a sample or how much of each is present.
  4. What is biochemistry?
    Biochemistry deals with the chemistry of living things.
  5. What is a chemical change?
    A chemical change is a change in the composition or structure of a substance. Also called a chemical reaction.
  6. What is a chemical property?
    A chemical property is the characteristic way a substance can react to produce other substances.
  7. What is chemistry?
    Chemistry is the study of the interaction of matter and energy and the changes that matter undergoes.
  8. What are the coinage metals?
    Elements in group 1B (11). Copper, gold, silver.
  9. What is a compound?
    A compound is s a chemical combination of elements that has its own set of properties.
  10. What is a definite composition?
    The given ratio by mass of each element in a compound to any other element in the compound. All parts of the compound are the same. Like water is 88.8% oxygen and 11.2% hydrogen by mass.
  11. What does it mean to dissolve something?
    Dissolve means to go into solution making a homogenous mixture.
  12. What does ductile mean?
    Ductile means can be drawn into wire.
  13. What are elements?
    Elements are the simplest form of matter and cannot be broken down chemically into simpler, stable substances.
  14. What is energy?
    Energy is the capacity to do work.
  15. What is an extensive property?
    A characteristic that depends on the quantity of the sample
  16. What is a family?
    A family is also known as a group of chemicals that have similar chemical properties, which change gradually from each one to the one below it in the periodic table of elements.
  17. What is a formula?
    A combination of symbols and subscripts that identifies the composition of an element, compound or ion.
  18. What is a group?
    A family or group of chemicals listed vertically in the periodic table. The chemicals have similar chemical properties, which change gradually from each one to the one below it.
  19. What are the halogens?
    • Halogens are elements in group VIIA. The term "halogen" means "salt-former" and compounds containing halogens are called "salts".
    • Fluorine
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Iodine
    • Astatine
  20. What is a heterogeneous mixture?
    Two or more different types of matter can be seen to be present with the naked eye or a good optical microscope.
  21. What is a homogeneous mixture?
    Homogenous mixtures are also called solutions, look alike throughout, even under a microscope.
  22. What is a hypothesis?
    A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to explain why a law is true.
  23. What are the inner transition elements?
    There are two inner transition series. They fit into the periodic table in periods 6 and 7, right after lanthanum and actinium. The first series is called the lanthanide series after lanthanum and the second series is called the actinide series after actinium, the elements that precede them. None of the actinide elements have been found in nature. They are all artificial. All of the elements in the actinide series are radio active.
  24. What is inorganic chemistry?
    Inorganic chemistry deals with all the elements and with the compounds that are not defined as organic.
  25. What is an intensive property?
    A characteristic such as a color that does not depend on the quantity of the material present.
  26. What is a law?
    A law is when a large group of scientific observations is generalized into a single statement.
  27. What is the law of conservation of energy?
    The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be converted from one form to another.
  28. What is law of conservation of mass?
    The law of conservation of mass states that in any chemical reaction or physical change, the total mass present after the change is equal to the total mass present before the change.
  29. What is a main group element?
    The big block on either end.
  30. What does malleable mean?
    Malleable means the material can be pounded into thin sheets.
  31. What is mass?
    Mass is how much matter is in an object.
  32. What is matter?
    Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
  33. What is metal?
    Metals are to the left of the stepped line in the periodic table or a mixture of those elements. Most metals conduct electricity, have a metallic luster, are generally malleable and are ductile.
  34. What is a metalloid?
    Elements near the dividing line between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table that have properties metals and nonmetals.
  35. What is a mixture?
    A mixture is a physical combination of substances that has an arbitrary composition and properties characteristic of its components.
  36. What is a noble gas?
    • The noble gases are elements in the periodic group 0.
    • Helium
    • Neon
    • Argon
    • Krypton
    • Xenon
    • Radon
  37. What is a nonmetal?
    Nonmetals are to the right of the dividing line except for Hydrogen. Nonmetals are generally brittle.
  38. What is organic chemistry?
    Organic chemistry deals mostly with the compounds of carbon.
  39. What is a period?
    A period is all elements in any horizontal row of the periodic table. There are 7 periods.
  40. What is the periodic table?
    An assemblage of elements in order of atomic number, with elements having similar chemical properties aligned in vertical columns.
  41. What is a physical change?
    Physical changes do no alter the chemical composition of a substance.
  42. What is physical chemistry?
    Physical chemistry deals with the properties, especially quantitative (measurable) properties of substances.
  43. What is a property?
    Properties are the characteristics by which we can identify something.
  44. What is a quantitative property?
    Quantitative properties are those that can be measured. For example, the melting point and boiling point.
  45. What is the scientific method?
    • 1. State the problem clearly.
    • 2. Do further experiments. Many scientists test the generality with experiments, repeating each other�s work and doing other experiments related to those.
    • 3. Interpret the results. See if the generality explains all the results, new and old.
    • 4. Accept the law. If all the data support the law, it is generally accepted by the scientific community as true. If later, further experiments are in conflict with the law, it is modified or abandoned altogether.
  46. What is a solution?
    A solution is a homogenous mixture that looks alike throughout, even under a microscope.
  47. What is a symbol?
    Each chemical is identified by an internationally recognized symbol consisting of one or two letters. The first letter is always capitalized and the second is always lower case.
  48. What is a theory?
    A theory is a generally accepted hypothesis.
  49. What are transition elements?
    Transition elements are the 4 rows of elements in the middle of the periodic table.