integumentary system

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  1. what are the 3 regions of the skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • hypodermis
  2. epidermis
    superficial region
  3. dermis
    middle region
  4. hypodermis
    deepest region
  5. what are the layers of the epidermis
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale
  6. stratum corneum
    outermost layer. 20-30 layers of dead kerationocytes
  7. stratum granulosum
    between living and dead layers
  8. stratum lucidum
    dead keratinocytes on palms of hands and soles of feet
  9. stratum spinosum
    layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes
  10. stratum basale
    deepest layer of epidermis. Attached to dermis
  11. what are the three cells of the epidermis
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells
  12. keratinocytes
    produce the fibrous protein keratin
  13. melanocytes
    10-25% cells in lower epidermis. Produce melanin.
  14. epidermal dendrite (Langerhans) cells
    macrophages that protect and help activate the immune system
  15. tactile (merkel) cells
    touch receptors. Always attached to nerve ending. Responds to light touch.
  16. The dermis is made out of
    connective tissue
  17. the cells of the dermis are
    • fibroblasts
    • macrophages
    • mast cells
    • white blood cells
  18. the two layres of the dermis are
    • papillary
    • reticular
  19. papillary layer of dermis
    dermal superior surface made up of aerolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic
  20. reticular layer of dermis
    • 80% of thickness of the dermis
    • dense irregular connective tissue
    • has collagen fibers- strength and resilience
    • elastic fibers- promote stretch recoil properties
  21. sweat glands
    • eccrine (merocrine)
    • apocrine
  22. eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands
    • located on the palms, soles of feet and forehead
    • function: thermoregulation
  23. apocrine sweat glands
    • on the axillary\angogenital area
    • produce sebum
    • ducts connect to hair follicles
  24. specialized apocrine glands
    • ceruminous glands- on external ear canal
    • mammory glands
  25. dermal papillae contain
    • capillary loops
    • meisner's corpuscle - touch receptors
  26. function of skin
    • protection
    • calcitriol - activates vit d production in skin
    • absorbtion/secretion
    • blood reservoir
  27. hair consists of
    dead keratinized cells
  28. hair pigment
  29. hair had three layers
    • cortex (outer part)
    • medulla (innermost part)
    • cuticle

    The rest of the hair is the follicle
  30. hair follicle
    extends from the epidermal surface into the dermis
  31. hair follicle receptor (hair root plexus)
    • sensory nerve endings arounds each hair bulb
    • stimulated by bending a hair
  32. arrector pili
    smooth muscle attached to follicle
  33. types of hair
    • bellus- pale, fine body hair of children and women
    • terminal- coarse body hair
  34. lunula
    white moon shape part of nail
  35. cuticle
    skin fold proximal to lunula
  36. hyponchium
    underneath free edge of nail
  37. keratinocytes
    • nail matrix surrounding nail root
    • highly mitotic
  38. nail matrix
    live part of nail
  39. types of skin cancer
    • basal cell carcinoma
    • squamous cell carcinoma
    • melanoma
  40. basal cell carcinoma
    • most common
    • cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases
    • stratum basale cells invade
  41. squamous cell carcinoma
    most common on scalp, lower lip, hands
  42. melanoma
    • deadly
    • involves melanocytes
    • highly metastatic and resistant to treatment
    • treat3ed by surgical excision and immunotherapy
  43. characteristics of melanoma
    • assymetry
    • border exhibits indentations
    • color is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue
    • diameter is longer than 6mm
Card Set:
integumentary system
2011-09-18 03:37:47

skin nails and hair
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