Micro chap 2

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Micro chap 2
2011-09-18 09:35:45

Microbiology chap 2
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  1. Actinobacteria
    the phylum of Gram positive bacteria have high g+c ratios. many of the bacteria have highly pleomorhic shapes with some bacteria growing as long branching filaments that resemble fungal hyphae
  2. Alphaproteobacteria
    a class in the Proteobacteria that includes most of the Proteobacteria capable of growth at very low levels of nutrients. Includes the anaerobic photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria, the agriculturally important symbiotic, nitrogen fixing bacteria, as well as several human and plant pathogens
  3. Animalia
    the kingdom composed of multicellular eukaryotes lacking cell walls
  4. Axial Filament
    the structure for motility found in spirochetes; also called endoflagellum
  5. Bacteria
    Domain of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by petidoglycan cell walls; bacterium (singular) when referring to a single organism
  6. Bacteriodetes
    The phylum of Gram-negative bacteria includes several anaerobic genera and includes the genus Bacteroides, a common inhabitant of the human intestinal tract
  7. Bergey's Manual
    Refers to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edition, the standard reference for bacterial taxonomic classification. Uses rRNA similarities and differences to determine phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships
  8. Betaproteobacteria
    a class in the Proteobacteria that often uses nutrients that have diffused from areas of anaerobic decomposition. Includes nitrifying bacteria and several important pathogens
  9. Binary Fission
    Prokaryotic cell reproduction by division into two daugher cells
  10. Binomial Nomenclature
    the system of having two names (genus and specific epithet) for each organism; also call scientific nomenclature
  11. Carl R. Woese
    proposed creating three domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA) characteristics (1978)
  12. Carl von Nageli
    proposed that bacteria and fungi be placed in the plant kingdom (1857)
  13. Carolus Linnaeus
    swedish naturalist is known as the father of modern taxonomy. He developed the binomial system of nomenclature to classify and organize plants and animals (1735)
  14. Chlamydiae
    the phylum of Gram-negative bacteria consists of obligate, intracellular pathogens that are transmitted by inhalation of aerosols or by direct contact between hosts
  15. Chlorobi
    a group of Gram-negative, anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacteria (also called green nonsulfur bacteria)
  16. Chloroflexi
    a group of Gram-negative, anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacteria (also called green sulfur bacteria) that deposit sulfur outside the cell
  17. Class
    a taxonomic group between phylum and order
  18. Cyanobacteria
    a group of Gram-negative, aerobic, photosynthetic bacteria (also called blue-green algae) that produce oxygen similar to photosynthesis in algae and plants. Some groups fix atmoshperic nitrogen in specialized cells called hererocysts
  19. Deltaproteobacteria
    a class in the proteobacteria. They include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria, as well as the important sulfur reducing bacteria
  20. Domain
    a taxonomic classification based on rRNA sequences; above the kingdom level
  21. Domain Archaea
    Includes all prokaryotes that do not have petidoglycan in their cell walls. They often liven in extreme environments and have unusual metabolic processes
  22. Domain Bacteria
    Includes prokaryotes that have peptidoglycan in the cell wall. All pathogenic prokaryotes belong to this domain. It also includes many nonpathogenic and some photoautotrophic prokaryotes
  23. Domain Eukarya
    Includes all eukaryotic organisms: animals, plants, fungi, and protists
  24. Edouard Chatton
    introduced the term 'prokaryote' to distinguish cells without a nucleus from those with nuclei (1937)
  25. Endosymbiotic Theory
    According to this theory, eukaryotic cells evolved from symbiotic prokaryotes living inside other prokaryotic cells
  26. Enteric
    The common name for a bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae
  27. Enterotoxin
    The exotoxin that causes gastroenteritis, such as those produced by Staphylococcus, Vibrio, and Escherichia
  28. Epsilonproteobacteria
    a class in the proteobacteria, these gram-negative bacteria are slender rods that have helical or vibroid shapes and include animal and human pathogens
  29. Eukarya
    all eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) ; members of the Domain Eukarya
  30. Eukaryote
    a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus
  31. Ernst Haeckel
    proposed creating the Kingdom Protista, which would include all unicellular organisms including bacteria, protozoa, fungi and algae (1866)
  32. Eukaryotic Species
    a group of closely related organisms that can interbreed
  33. Family
    a taxonomic group between order and genus
  34. Firmicutes
    this phylum of Gram-positive bacteria have low G+C ratios. They include important endospore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium and Bacillus as well as non-endospore forming genera Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus
  35. Fungus
    (plural : fungi) An organism that belongs to the Kingdom Fungi; a eukaryotic absorptive chemoheterotroph
  36. Fusobacteria
    this phylum consists of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria that are typically pleomorphic or can be spindle-shaped
  37. G + C Ratio
    the percentage of all DNA base pairs in a genome that are guanin-cytosine base pairs--used to group Gram-positive bacteria into two phylogenetically related groups; the high G+C (>50%) group, Actinobacteria; and the low G+C (<50%) group, Firmicutes
  38. Gammaproteobacteria
    the largest class in the proteobacteria. It includes a great variety of physiological types, members inhabit soils, aquatic habitats or are important mammalian intestinal symbionts, as well as human pathogens
  39. Genus
    (plural: genera) the first name of the scientific name (binomial); the taxon between family and species
  40. Kingdom
    a taxonomic classification between domain and phylum
  41. Order
    a taxonomic classification between class and family
  42. Phylum
    a taxonomic classification between kingdom and class
  43. Plantae
    the kingdom composed of multicellular eukaryotes with cellulose cell walls
  44. Prokaryote
    a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope
  45. Prokaryotic Species
    a population of cells that share certain rRNA sequences; in conventional biochemical testing , it is a population of cells with similar characteristics
  46. Prostheca
    a stalk or bud protruding from a prokaryotic cell
  47. Proteobacteria
    Gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic bacteria that possess a signature rRNA sequence
  48. Protist
    Term used for unicellular and simple multicellular eukaryotes; usually protozoa and algae
  49. Robert G.E. Murphy
    propsed creating the Kingdom Prokaryotae (1968)
  50. Robert H. Whittaker
    founded the five-kingdom concept; with all prokaryotes in the Kingdom Monera and eukaryotes in the Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista (1969)
  51. Roger Stanier
    provided the current definition of a prokaryote, cells in which the nuclear material is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane (1961)
  52. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA is present in all cells. Differences in rRNA are used to determine phylogenetic relationships among bacteria
  53. Specific Epithet
    the second or species name in a scientific binomial
  54. Spirochaetes
    Members of this Gram-negative phylum have coiled spring-like shapes, and move through the use of two or more axial filaments lying under the outer sheath. Human pathogens include the genera Treponema (syphilis) and Borrelia (Lyme disease)
  55. Strain
    genetically different cells within a clone
  56. Taxonomic Hierarchy
    grouping organisms into a series of subdivisions to show relationships: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain
  57. Taxonomy
    the science of the classification of organisms
  58. Viral Species
    a group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche