Anti-Histamines

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Author:
ramy
ID:
102379
Filename:
Anti-Histamines
Updated:
2011-09-17 20:42:59
Tags:
Anti Histamines
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Description:
Anti-Histamine Drugs
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  1. Diphenhydramine (benadryl)
    • 1st generation
    • H1 Antagonist
    • Ethanolamine
    • Oral
    • Therapeutic effect within 10-30 mins
    • Metabolized by liver
    • Duration 4-6 hours
    • SE: goes into CNS and causes sedation, anticholinergic effects (dry nose/mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention), loss of appertite, nausea, diarrhea
  2. Loratadine (Claratine)
    • 2nd generation
    • H1 Antagonist
    • More specific for H1 receptorless
    • lipophilic (can't cross BBB) Less sedative
    • Duration 12-24 hours
    • May also inhibit mast cell degranulation
    • 24 hr duration
    • 7% sedation incidence
  3. Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-trimenton)
    • alternative for diphenhydramine less potent though
    • alkylamine
    • H1 Antagonist
    • Useful for allergic rhinitis, pruritus (not wide range of uses)
    • lower sedation effect
    • low to moderate CNS stimulation in younger patients
  4. Hydroxyzine
    • 1st gen
    • H1 Antagonist
    • SKIN ALLERGIES
    • 12 hour duration (b/c active metabolite cetirizine is also H1 blocker)
    • HIGH CNS depression (this enhances the anti-pruritic effect)
  5. Cyclizine
    • 1st gen
    • H1 Antagonist
    • Used for motion sickness (emesis)
    • not as effective as diphenhydramine
    • lower SE (low CNS depression & anti-cholinergic effects)
  6. Promethazine
    • 1st gen
    • H1 Antagonist
    • A lot similar to diphenihydramine
    • BIG USE: Local anesthetic action
    • Also allergic rhinitis, irticaria, conjuctivitis
    • SE: High CNS depression (sedation)
    • High anticholinergic effects
  7. Fexofenadine (allegra)
    • 2nd gen
    • H1 Antagonist
    • 12 hr duration
    • 1% sedation incidence
    • no anti-cholinergic effects
  8. Certirizine (Zyrtec)
    • 2nd gen.
    • H1 Antagonist
    • close to but less than 24 hr. duration
    • 15% sedation incidencegives dry mouth/nose & fatigue

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