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Pneumonia caused by a Diplocci is?
Pneumonia by a coccoid shaped gram negative bacteria that causes meningitis in kids?
Cause of Pneumonia in Elderly?
Bacteria causing exacerbation of COPD?
Secondary pneumonia following a viral infection is caused by?
Nocosomial Pneumonia or in an IV drug abuser?
Pneumonia in chronic alcohol?
Atypical pneumonia presents how?
interstitial without consolidation
Atypical (interstitial)pneumonia is caused by what organisms?
- C. pneumonia
- M. Pneumonia
Reye syndrome results in what?
- Aspirin inhibits beta oxidation, cirhosis of liver, low albumin, low oncotic pressure, cerebral edema
Elevated cold agglutinins are found in what pneumonia?
Atypical pneumonia can lead to typical pneumonia how?
secondary bacterial infection
Lung abscess usually occur where in the lung?
right lower lobe because of aspiration
Causes for lung abscess?
- s. aureus
What is miliary TB
dissemination of Tb to meningees, spleen, bone
Tb in lumbar vertebrae?
TO be diagnosed with COPD how long must the copious cough last?
at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years
Which obstructive disease gives blue bloaters?
Pink puffers are who?
Reid index measures what?
thickness of mucus glands to thickness from epithelium to cartilage. the bigger the ratio the more severe chronic bronchitis
Hypertrophy of bronchial mucus glands occurs in what condition?
What are complication of chronic Bronchitis?
- Cor pulmonale
Which emphysema type is associated with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency?
Which emphysema type is associated with smoking?
Which type of emphysema is associated with chronic bronchitis?
Paraseptal emphysema is involved with enlargement of what part of the acinus?
distal part-adjecent to fibrosis, atelectasis
What is asthma?
2 types of asthma?
- extrinsic--type I hypersensitivity--allergic
What is Curshmann's spiral?
epithelial cells enclosed by mucus
What structural changes are see in the bronchioles in asthma?
- hypertrophic mucus-goblet cells
- thickened basement membrane
- Alveolar dilation
- Cystic fibrosis, kartageners leading to necrotizing pneumonia and permanent dilation of the alveoli
Causes for hypoplasia?
- Renal Problems
WHat is a bronchogenic cyst?
abnormal detached primitive gut
Congenital Pulmonary artery Malformation 1 has large or small cysts?
which atelectasis is irriversible?
Which emphysema can lead to a spontaneous pneumothorax when the bullae ruptures?
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis results from what?
repeated cycles of injury and wound healing with collagen in the interstitial space leading to increased diffusing distance
Honeycomb fibrosis is seen in what lung disease?
restirictive---Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
What is pneumoconicosis?
inhalation of mineral dust--silicosis, asbestosis, berrileym, coal
Which lung diseases can progress to Cor pulmonale?
all lung diseases
Eggshell calcification of hilar lymph nodes is seen in which restrictive pneumoconiscosis?
Coal and silicosis pneumoconicosis affect which part of the lungs?
What is Caplan Syndrome?
Coal Miners Pneumoconicosis + rheumatoid Nodules
Which Pneumoconicosis increases susceptibility to TB?
- silica prevents the fusion of the phagolysosome
Dystrophic Calcification of hilar lymph nodes in Silicosis is called?
WHat 3 conditions have night sweats?
- Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Takayasu arteritis
What 3 conditions produce cavitaiton of lungs?
aspergillosis, tb, silicosis
WHich 2 pneumoconicosis increase risk for carcinoma?
What are the 4 disease that asbestosis can produce?
- fibrosis, pleural effusion
What are the features of Sarcoidosis?
- ACE high
- Interstitial fibrosis
- Non-caseating granulomas--lung, liver, spleen,
High TNF levels, non caseating granulomas and bihilar lymphadenopathy are features of ?
Marker of disease activity for sarcoidosis?
Shaumann and Asteroid bodies are characteristic of what?
immune mediated interstitial fibrosis mediated by inhalation of organic antigens: bacterial, fungal spores
Dust contating spores of thermophillic actinomyces produces what?
Farmer's lung--hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Pigeon's breeder lung
antigens from bird exreta are inhaled producing intersticia fibrosis due to hypersensitivity pneumonitis
All hypersensitiity pneumonitis produce what characteristic morphological tissue pattern of cells and structures?
- granuloma--Hypersensitivity Type IV
ARDS is caused by what?
diffuse damage to the alveolar and capillary epithelium
What is seen on microscopy in ARDS?
- Interstial inflammation
- alveolar and interstitial edema
- hyaline membrane lining the alveolus
What is the treatment for ARDS?
postitive end expiratory pressure
Why does a cessarian section decrease surfactant production?
bc no stress= no surfactant