Diencephalon (Welke)

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Author:
catitasilva
ID:
102441
Filename:
Diencephalon (Welke)
Updated:
2011-12-09 07:44:23
Tags:
diencephalon
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Description:
Parts of the diencephalon
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  1. Boundaries of the Diencephalon:
    Anterior
    Posterior
    Floor
    Roof
    Medial
    Lateral
    • Anterior: anterior commissure & optic chiasm
    • Posterior: pineal gland
    • Floor: posterior commissure & hypothalamus
    • Roof: fornix
    • Medial: wall of 3rd ventricle
    • Lateral: internal capsule & tail of caudate nucleus
  2. Regions of the Diencephalon
    • 1. Epithalamus
    • 2. Subthalamus
    • 3. Thalamus
    • 4. Hypothalamus
  3. Components of the epithalamus?
    Pineal gland & Habenular nuclei
  4. Habenular Nuclei
    What system does it belong to?
    Afferent Input?
    Efferent Output?
    • Involved in limbic system relays
    • Afferent Input: stria medullaris thalami
    • Efferent Output: interpeduncular nuclei
  5. Pineal Gland Contents
    • 1. pinealocytes
    • 2. glial cells
    • 3. rich vasculature
  6. Pineal Gland Function
    • - regulates circadian rhythms by levels of melatonin
    • - high during darkness, low during light
    • - activity regulated by light from retina
    • - antigonadotropic effect
  7. Pathway of Pineal Gland Activity
    • 1. Retina
    • 2. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN-hypothalamus)
    • 3. Reticular formation in ventrolateral medulla
    • 4. Intermediolateral neurons of sp. cord
    • 5. Superior cervical ganglion
    • 6. Pineal Gland
  8. Circumventricular Organ
    organ that lacks a blood brain barrier

    ex: pineal gland
  9. Contents of the Subthalamus
    • 1. Subthalamic nuclei (STN)
    • 2. Zona Incerta (ZI)
    • 3. Rostral extensions of Red Nucleus & Substantia Nigra (SN)
  10. Subthalamus:

    Function of subthalamic nucleus?
    part of basal ganglia circuitry; related to motor systems
  11. Subthalamus:

    Function of the Substantia Nigra?
    2 parts: pars compacta & pars reticularis; related to motor systems
  12. Subthalamus:
    Function of Zona Incerta?
    widespread & unknown
  13. Thalamus:
    Regions & Nuclei?
    • 1. Anterior: anterior n.
    • 2. Medial: dorsal medial n.
    • 3. Lateral:
    • ventral: VA, VD, VPM, VPL
    • dorsal: Pulvinar, LP, LD
    • metathalamic: MGB, LGB
    • intralaminar: centromedian & parafascicular n.
  14. Thalamus:
    Specific nuclei vs. Non specific nuclei
    • Specific: Anterior, VA, VL, VPM, VPL, LGB, MGB
    • Non specific: DMN, Pulvinar, LP
  15. Thalamus: LGN
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: LGN
    • Major input? optic tract
    • Major output? visual cortex (17)
    • Function? vision
  16. Thalamus: MGN
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: MGN
    • Major input? Inferior colliculus (IC)
    • Major output? Auditory Cortex (41, 42)
    • Function? Hearing
  17. Thalamus: VPL
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: VPL
    • Major input? Medial Lemniscus & Spinal Thalamic Tract
    • Major output? Somatosensory Cortex (3,1,2)
    • Function? T/P/P & P/T (body)
  18. Thalamus: VPM
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: VPM
    • Major input? Trigeminothalamic tract & solitary n.
    • Major output? Somatosensory (3,1,2)
    • Function? T/P/P & P/T (face)
  19. Thalamus: VL
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: VL
    • Major input? dentate n., substantia nigra, globus pallidus
    • Major output? Motor (4) & Pre motor (6)
    • Function? movement
  20. Thalamus: VA
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: VA
    • Major input? globus pallidus, substantia nigra
    • Major output? motor (4) & pre motor (6)
    • Function? movement
  21. Thalamus: Anterior
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: Anterior
    • Major input? hippocampus, mammillothalamic tract
    • Major output? cingulate gyrus
    • Function? emotion & memory (limbic)
  22. Thalamus: LD
    Major input?
    Major output?
    Function?
    • Thalamus: LD
    • Major input? hippocampus
    • Major output? cingulate gyrus
    • Function? emotion & memory (limbic)
  23. Complex Connectivity of Hypothalamus
    • 1. interconnection w/limbic system
    • 2. output to pituitary
    • 3. interconnection w/bisceral & somatic nuclei of brainstem & spinal cord
  24. Longitudinal Regions of Hypothalamus
    • 1. Periventricular zone
    • 2. Medial zone
    • 3. Lateral zone
  25. Regions of the Hypothalamus
    • 1. Posterior
    • 2. Tuberal
    • 3. Anterior
    • 4. Preoptic
    • 5. Lateral
  26. Nuclei of Hypothalamus:
    Posterior Area
    • Mamillary Body: learning & memory
    • Posterior N.: thermoregulatory
  27. Nuclei of Hypothalamus:
    Tuberal Area
    • Arcuate n.: makes Grehlin--> increases food intake & dopamine release
    • VMN: ant-larger in females; sup-satiety
    • DMN: hyperphagia & wakefulness (orexin)
  28. Nuclei of Hypothalamus:
    Anterior Area
    • Supraoptic N. (2): regulate water balance
    • Paraventricular N.: " " "
    • Anterior N.: thermoregulatory
    • Suprachiasmatic N. : controls biological clock
  29. Nuclei of Hypothalamus:
    Preoptic Area
    Preoptic N.: larger in males (mounting)
  30. Nuclei of Hypothalamus:
    Lateral Area
    Lateral N.: feeding center (pleasure)

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