Respiratory System ppt 1-10

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Respiratory System ppt 1-10
2010-03-13 11:01:32
vis phys

esp for Defination
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  1. External respiration/ Breathing
    Movement of air in and out of the respiratory system
  2. Exchange of gases between alveoli and blood
    Internal respiration
  3. Transport of gases between the lungs and tissues by the blood
    internal respiration
  4. Cellular respiration
    use of oxygen by cells to generate ATP
  5. Conducting portion
    • Air is moved thru without gas exchange
    • =anatomical dead space
    • From nasal passage to the terminal bronchioles

    • Upper respiratory system
    • =filters, warms and humidifies incoming air
  6. respiratory portion-gas exchange

    -when alveoli are damaged and can not exchange gases

    =physiological dead space
  7. Brochioles have smooth muscle
    • Provide the major source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory system
    • Brochiolar constriction -
    • caused by parasympatheic stimulation
    • --> Acetylcholine, or immune cells
    • --> Histamine
  8. Brochiolar dialtion
    caused by
    • Sympathetic stimulation
    • -->Norepinephrine, or adrenal medulla stimulation
    • -->E + NE release (neurohormones)
  9. alveolar sacs
    • =region of gas exchange
    • -(150million/lung) each is surrounded by capillaries

    -gas diffusion occurs across single layer of alveolar epithelial cells

    -fused basement membrane of alveoli + capillary, single layer of endothelial cells
  10. Septal cells
    • produce surfactant
    • -reduced surface tension of alveolar fluid
    • -keep alveoli expanded and prevent collapse
  11. alveolar macrophages
    phagocytize particles that reach the alveoli (PM<2.5 Microns)
  12. Pleura
    • Serous membrane made by two layers separated by pleural fluid
    • -parietal pleura
    • -visceral pleura
  13. parietal pleura
    covers inner surface of thoracic wall
  14. visceral pleural
    covers the outer surface of the lung
  15. intrapleural pressure
    • pressure on the fluid between the two layers of pleura
    • -plays a role in expansion and compression of the alveolar walls, air pressure in the lungs and air movement in and out of lungs
  16. Defense mechanism
    • Goblet cells in the epithelium
    • Mucous glands in the lamina propria produce sticky mucous
    • -increased by exposure to contaminants in air

    • Cilia in the nasal cavity sweep the mucous down to the pharynx; Cillia in URT sweep mucous up to the pharynx
    • =muco-ciliary escalator
  17. Inhalation
    • -atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg) > alveolar pressure (759mmHg aka -1mm Hg)
    • -(-1 mm Hg is adequate for quiet breathing, deep rapid inhalation requires: -20 to -30 mm Hg difference)
  18. Exhalation
    alveolar pressure > atmospheric pressure
  19. Creation of pressure difference for inhalation
    • requires inspiratory skeletal muscle contration.
    • increases the size of the thoracic cavity --> decreased alveolar pressure