A&P LAB EXAM 1 REVIEW

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Aynrand
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A&P LAB EXAM 1 REVIEW
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2011-09-18 21:20:37
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EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONS CREATED ON THE WEB
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  1. A darker colored specimen showing on a light field of view describes what type of microscope.
    Brightfield
  2. What does it mean that the microscope is compound?
    It has two converging lenses. the ocular lense which we look through and the objective lens which is positioned immediately above the specimen
  3. Which part of the microscope is located in the back, is where the adjustment knobs are located, and it's main function is for the construction of the microscope and to help with transporting it around the lab?
    The arm
  4. This part of the microscope is located at the bottom and it's main function is for construction, it's where the illuminator condenser, field iris and power knob are located and it should be held while moving the microscope around the lab?
    Base
  5. This part of the microscope is located on the base near the substage condenser knob,its main function is to control the intensity of light coming from the illuminator condenser.
    Brightness control knob
  6. This part of the microscope is located on the ocular body and is used if you need to rotate the body.
    Clamping screw
  7. This part of the microscope is located on the arm and it's main function is to raise and lower the mechanical stage in large increments while using scanning and low power objectives.
    Coarse focus knob
  8. This part of the microscope is located on it's arm and it's main function is to raise and lower the mechanical stage in small increments while in high power and immersion oil objective lens.
    Fine focus knob
  9. This part of the microscope is located on the base and it's main function is to provide light to the substage condenser.
    Illuminator Condenser
  10. This part of the microscope is located at the bottom of the substage condenser and its main function is to open and close to control the amount of light that reaches the slide.
    Iris Diaphragm
  11. This part of the microscope is located in the center and it's main function is to hold the slide and allow light to shine through it.
    Mechanical Stage
  12. This part of the microscope is located on the resolving nosepiece and it's main function is to increase the magnification of the specimen.
    Objective lenses
  13. This part of the microscope is located at the top of the arm and it's main function is to hold the ocular lens.
    Ocular Body
  14. This part of the microscope is located on the ocular body and its main function is to magnify the image by 10x and create a virtual image.
    Ocular lens
  15. This part of the microscope is located below the ocular body and it's main function is to allow rotation of the objective lenses which it houses.
    Revolving nosepiece
  16. This part of the microscope is located on the mechanical stage and its main functions are to grip the slide and hold it into place, and allows you to control movement of the slide.
    Slide holder
  17. This part of the microscope is located on the mechanical stage and its main function is to assist in keeping the slide in place. When positioned correctly it will sit firmly against the outer edge of the slide.
    Slide holder claw
  18. This part of the microscope is located between the mechanical stage and the illuminator condenser. It's main function is to concentrate the light from the illuminator condenser so as to create a direct cone of light on the specimen into the objective lens.
    Substage Condenser
  19. This part of the microscope is located on the mechanical stage. Its main function is to move the slide in vertical and horizontal directions to ensure that it lines up the stages aperture and is centered.
    X and Y travel knobs
  20. This objective lens has a magnification of 4x and a total magnification of 40x
    Scanning
  21. This objective lens is second, has a magnification of 10x and total mag of 100x.
    Low-power.
  22. Which objective lens is blue on the microscope, has an mag of 40x and a total mag of 400x?
    High-Power
  23. This is the highest objective lens with a mag of 100x and a total mag of 1000x
    Oil immersion lens. It is the white lens on the microscope
  24. What two lenses should be used when first examing the slide and adjusting with the coarse adjustment knob?
    • Scanning power lens 4x red
    • Low-power lens 10x yellow
  25. What two lenses should be used when we have already focused the slide and are now adjusting with the fine focus know?
    • High-power lens 40x blue. total mag 400x
    • Oil immersion lens 100x white total mag 1000x
  26. This can be described as the ability of the microscope to reveal details of the specimen's structure.
    Resolution
  27. What do you call the ability of microscope to increase the image size of a specimen? This is done by the ocular lens and the objective lens.
    Magnification
  28. What is the difference between the darkest point in an image and the brightest point? This is controlled by the iris diaphragm of the microscope and is increased as the diaphragm closes.
    Contrast
  29. The fact that the specimen stays nearly in focus when the objective lens is changed means our microscopes are what?
    Parfocal
  30. This feature of the microscope means that an object in the center of the field being examined will stay in the center of the field regardless of which lens is used.
    Paracentric
  31. What do you call the distance between the front of the objective lens and the slide?
    Working distance
  32. Why does the working distance decrease as the magnification increases?
    Because the length of objective lens increases as magnification increases.
  33. What happens to the working distance when magnification increases?
    it gets smaller
  34. What is the field of view?
    The space in which you are able to see the specimen. It should be well lit with no obstructions. The light source is controlled by the iris diaphragm
  35. What is the depth of view/field?
    The ability to focus on all the layers of a specimen.
  36. What happens to the depth of view/field when magnification increases.
    it decreases to where only one layer of the specimen can be in focus at a time
  37. What happens to the field of view as the magnification increases?
    It decreases. As magnification increases the surface area of the objective lens decreases, decreasing our field of view
  38. How should the amount of light be adjusted when using the microscope?
    The iris diaphragm should be opened and closed to control this.
  39. What happened to the letter "e" after being viewed in the microscope?
    it is inverted
  40. What limitation is revealed while using the high power objective (40x) to examine threads?
    The depth of field decreased and it became more difficult to keep all threads in focus.
  41. Where did the sample come from for our buccal smear?
    our mouth and gumline
  42. What was the first step in the preparation of the buccal smear?
    use the water bottle to transfer a small drop of water to the slide
  43. What type of cells were viewed from our buccal smear?
    Epithelial cells
  44. What do we call the study of tissues?
    Histology
  45. What do we call groups of related cells?
    Tissues
  46. This type of tissue lines the body's surfaces, cavities and tubes. Its cells are closely packed together and it's main functions are to protect, secretion and diffusion.
    Epithelial tissues
  47. This structure of epithelial tissues provides support from adjacent supporting tissues.
    Basement membrane
  48. This feature of can be found on the apical surfaces of epithelial tissues it serves to enhance absorbtion and secretion.
    Microvilli
  49. These types of cells can be found in epithelial tissues they serve the function of producing and secreting mucus.
    Goblet cells
  50. This is a possible feature on the apical surface of epithelial cells.It helps move materials across the surface.It is much larger than microvilli and beat in a wave-like manner.
    Cilia
  51. This characteristic distinguishes simple epithelial tissues from stratified epithelial tissues
    Amount of cell layers. simple has a single layer. stratified has multiple
  52. What are the 3 classifications of cell shape in epithelial tissues?
    • Squamous-flattened with central nuclei
    • Columnar-rectangular
    • Cuboidal-squared with large central nuclei
  53. This type of tissue consists of a single flattened sheet of irregularly shaped cells.Lines the surface of structures involved in passive diffusion of gases or fluids. Heart, lungs
    Simple Squamous Epithelim
  54. This type of tissue has very thin layers of cells that are surrounded by large white empty spaces.
    Simple Squamous Epithelium
  55. This type of tissue has cells that appear square. It has excretory, secretory and absorptive functions.kidney, thyroid gland
    Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
  56. This type of tissue has less hollow space than compared to Simple Squamous Epithelium.It's cells are cube shaped.
    Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue
  57. When looking at a sample of this tissue type you will see cube shaped cells surrounding lumen (central hollow space). The cell sample will look very dense and full of materials
    Simple cuboidal epithial
  58. This type of tissue contains a single layer of tall rectangular shaped cells. Its function is to help with absorbtion. It can contain cilia and microvilli.small intestine,kidney
    Simple columnar epithelium
  59. When looking at a sample of this tissue type you will see distinct columnar structures. With the nuclei towards the base. There may be goblet cells dispersed throughout.
    Simple columnar epithelium
  60. This type of tissue has many layers of cells. Its function is to serve protection.mouth, esophagus, anus and vagina
    Stratified Squamous Epithelium non kerantinized
  61. When looking at a sample of this tissue type you will multiple layers of tissues and their cells stacked on top of each other.
    Stratified squamous epithelial tissue non kerantinized
  62. This type of tissue consists of many layers of cells and has a protective function. The top layer of this tissues cells provide a thick resilient waterproof covering.skin
    Stratified Squamous Epithelium Kerantinized.
  63. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see a thick layer of cells, that may have openings for the ducts of the sweat glands.
    Stratified Squamous Epithelium Kerantinized
  64. This tissue type is thin with about 2 to 3 layers of cells. Its function is for protection and it can be found in excretory ducts of glands, salivary glands, mammary ducts and sweat glands.
    Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
  65. This type of tissue is only a few layers thick, with cuboidal basolateral cells, and columnar superficial cells. It serves as protection and can be found in the pharynx, epiglottis, and ducts of some glands.
    Stratified columnar epithelium
  66. This type of tissue has multiple layers of of long retangular cells (3-8).Its function is to foster stretching. It can be found in the urinary tract, and urinary bladder, and ureter.
    Transitional Epithelium
  67. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see distinct areas of lumen surrounded by multilayered cells sometimes forming a circular pattern around the lumen.
    Transitional Epithelium
  68. This type of tissue consists of a single layer of columnar shaped cells. The nuclei are staggered, making it look like theres more than one layer. Its function is protection and ciliary movement of mucus.trachea
    Pseudostratified Epithelium
  69. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see long cells, with a little border of tiny "hairs" facing the lumen. Theres going to be big goblet cells through out.
    Pseudostratified epithelial
  70. This type of tissue usually have an extensive matrix, cells are called fibroblasts. it is composed of intercellular elements with divers cell types.
    Connective tissues.
  71. This material is found in connective tissues. It's a non living material located between cells.
    Matrix
  72. This type of tissue contains many fibers and cells. It has a spongy consistency. it fills in gaps between other tissues, surrounds organs and small blood vessels and contributes to the dermis.skin
    Areolar connective tissue
  73. When looking at a sample of this tissue you can see lots of string like fibers. There a lots of cells dotted through out.
    Areolar connective tissue
  74. This type of tissue has very thin fibers interwoven with fibroblasts.It functions as a support and provides internal framework.liver, spleen and lymph nodes
    Reticular Connective Tissue
  75. When looking at this tissue type you will see what looks like very narrowing openings among a lot of cells. The openings are actually the fibers.
    Reticular Connective Tissue
  76. This type of tissue has large oil-filled vacuoles with the nucleus at its rim. It has a net like appearance due to the unstained spaces within each cell. it insulates, shock absorbs.deep in dermis
    Adipose tissue
  77. When looking at a sample of this type of tissue it resembles fish scales.The nuclei are scattered throughout but you mainly see large empty spaces surrounded by reddish outline.
    Adipose Tissue
  78. This type of tissue is composed of parrallel bundles of collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Its structure helps with resistence and traction.ligaments, tendons
    Dense Regular Connective Tissue
  79. When looking at a sample of this tissue you can see columns of the collagen fibers, it almost looks like hair. The little dark spots along the columns are the nuclei
    Dense regular connective tissue
  80. This type of tissue is composed of randomly placed collagen fibers.The nuclei of fibroblasts appear as dark random spots.This helps with resistance from stress in all directions.dermis
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  81. When looking at a sample of this tissue, it almost looks marblized due to the random placement of the collagen fibers. and its spotted with little dots of nuclei
    Dense irregular connective tissue
  82. This type of tissue is composed of thick elastic fibers and has the ability to recoil.can be found in vertebral ligaments, lungs and arteries
    Elastic tissue (connective)
  83. When looking at a sample of this type of tissue you will see a marblization of elastic fibers mixed with smooth muscle. The fibers are very thick and almost look wirey
    Elastic connective tissue
  84. This type of tissue is in fluid form. With its elements suspended in plasma.The elements include erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
    Blood
  85. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see several dark dots, some with darker dots inside. and very tiny dots interspersed in between.
    Blood
  86. This tissue is composed of excess fluids in the venous system and is returned to blood by lymphatic vessels
    Lymph (connective tissue)
  87. This type of tissue has a clear matrix. It is composed of chondrocytes, that are surrounded by lucuna. Its firm structure is perfect for support.bone, trachae
    Hyaline cartilige (connective tissue)
  88. When looking at a sample of this tissue it has a polka dot pattern due to it's almost empty matrix and the chondrocytes that are dispersed through out.
    Hyaline cartilege (connective tissue)
  89. This type of tissue has a large amount of elastic and collagen fibers running through it's matrix. Its function is flexiblity and support. Contains chondrocytes and lacuna. ear, epiglottis
    Elastic cartilage (connective tissue)
  90. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see little black eyed peas dispersed throughout a matrix filled with hairy like fibers. very dark
    Elastic cartilage (connective tissue)
  91. This type of tissue lacks a perichondrium. The nuclei of the chondrocytes are easily seen.It is composed of thick collagen fibers.
    Fibrocartilage
  92. When looking at a sample of this tissue, you will see a vast of amount of hairy looking collagen fibers, with little nuclei of the chondrocytes dispersed throughout.
    Fibrocartilage (connective tissue)
  93. This type of tissue is the densest. It is made up of mature cells called osteocyes that form concentric rings.it serves as support, protection and calcium storage
    Compact Bone (connective tissue)
  94. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will see circlar objects with a defined center.
    Compact bone
  95. This type of tissue is located in parts of the body that arent heavily stressed.it is composed of a irregular lattice of thin columns called trabeculae.can be found on the hip,ribs and sternum
    Spongy bone (connective tissue)
  96. What do you call the process when areolar tissue soaks up fluid from inflamed infected area?
    Edema
  97. This cavity found in the adipose tissue is filled with oil and is located in the cytosol.
    Vacuole
  98. This type of cell is located in connective tissues. Its name means that it secretes materials that help comprise the matrix. they are flat and spindle shaped
    Fibroblasts
  99. Fluid cavities of supporting connective tissues that houses mature cells.
    Lacunae
  100. This is name of the cells found in supporting connective tissues. They perform house keeping functions and are surrounded by clear lacunae.
    Chondrocytes
  101. These are mature cells located in compact bones. They are arranged in concentric rings called concentric lamellae
    Osteocytes
  102. This is the membrane surrounding cartilage. It is composed of superficial fibrous layers overlying deep chondrogenic layers. Fibrocartilage is the one type of cartilage that doesnt have this.
    Perichondrium
  103. This is the cylindrical stucture found in bone that is created by the concentric rings of the osteocytes.
    Osteon (haversian system)
  104. This type of tissue has the unique function of contraction.
    Muscle tissues
  105. This type of tissue is called voluntary. Its cells give it a striped appearance.Each fiber is covered by endomysium.Very dense.responsible for movement of the skeleton and eyeball, tongue.
    Skeletal muscle tissue
  106. When looking at a sample of this tissue you will barely see any blank space. The nuclei are long and horizontal.The tissues make very tiny stripes
    Skeletal muscle tissue
  107. This type of tissue is specialized for continuous contractions of relatively low force. The cells are small and are irregulary placed throughout the tissue.can be found in uterus, bladder and blood vessels.
    Smooth muscle tissue
  108. When looking at a sample of this type of tissue you will see a large amount of randomly placed cells almost like a monet painting.
    Smooth muscle tissue
  109. This type of tissue has a striped appearance due to its large rectangular shaped cells.it provides for the contractility of the heart.The cells are connected by intercalated discs.
    Cardiac muscle tissue
  110. When looking at a sample of this tissue. The cells are slanted in a striped fashion.sort of resembles bamboo or a brick like pattern due to the thickness of the fibers
    Cardia muscle tissue
  111. This is the name of the individual cells found in muscle tissues. They have arrangements of contractile proteins that are responsible for shortening of the cell.
    Muscle fiber
  112. This structure connects the cells of the cardiac muscle tissue and facilitates communication.
    Intercalated discs
  113. This is a part of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle tissues. It provides points of anchorage and communication between cells.
    Gap junctions
  114. This is a delicate sheath of elastic connective tissue that covers the fibers is skeletal muscle tissue. it consists of reticular fibers and collagen and conveys small blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
    Endomysium
  115. This describes the higly organized striped pattern that a fiber in a muscle tissue can have.
    Striations
  116. This term describes a cell or fiber that has multipy nuclei.
    Multinucleate
  117. The nervous tissue is comprised of what cells?
    neuron cells and glial cells
  118. What is the name of the communication cells that make up nervous tissue.
    Neurons
  119. Which cells in nervous tissue are there for support?
    Glial cells
  120. This is the cell body of a nueron. It houses the nucleus and is surrounded by cytoplasm known as perikaryon
    Soma
  121. A neuron will only have one of these extending from its soma.it extends from a cone shaped portion.it is cylindrical in shape and can be referred to as nerve fibers.
    Axon
  122. This is an extension from the soma of the neuron. it either ends in receptors or connect with other neurons.its main function is to obtain information for the neuron.
    Dendrite
  123. This is a type of nerve cell that is composed of numerous slender dendrites at opposite ends of the cell bodies. they make up 99% of all neurons in the body
    Multipolar neuron

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