What are the two pillars of science (scientific method)?
1. logic (make sense)
2. observation (correspond with what we observe)
Science does not focus on what should be, but...
what seems to be.
Science seeks truth, but...
never believes it has found it.
Is science interested in individuals or aggregates?
What does the outcome of the theory depend on?
The criteria you agreed upon to measure data
Are there always exceptions to social regularities?
No, the overall pattern is what counts, not individuals but aggregates.
SS try to explain why aggreagted patterns of behavior are so regular even when individuals change over time. Do SS try to understand/explain the people per se?
No, they try to understand the systems in which they operate, in turn explains why people do what they do.
The elements in such a system are not people but variables.
What is the Borgardus Social Distance Scale?
a measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations--of varing degrees of closeness--with other kinds of people. ex. sex offender in community? ->sex offender marrying your child?
What is a Thurstone scale?
an attempt to develop a format for generating groups of indicators of a variable that have at least an empirical structure among them. ex. ranking each indicator with numerical scores determined by judges
What is a Likert Scale?
Calculates average index score for those agreeing with each of the individual statements. Seldom used today. Invented the "strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree", but then assign numbers 1-5 and add up averages.
What is the semantic differential?
asks respondents to choose between two opposite positions. ex. enjoyable-very much-somewhat-neither-somewhat-very much-unenjoyable.
What is Guttman scaling?
begins w some of the same steps that initiate index construction. begin by studying face validity of items. then study bivariate and multivariate relations among those. in scale, then look for hard or easy.
What do scales do that indexes don't?
They take advantage of any intensity structure that may be present among the individual indicators.
What is an idiographic explanation?
We seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Ex. explaining all the reasons I choose to attend UM
What is a nomothetic explanation?
we seek to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. ex. two or three reasons students choose UM i.e. proximity, reputation
What does inductive reasoning do?
moves from the particular to the general, from a set of specific observations to the discovery of a pattern that represents some degree of order among all the given events.
What does deduction do?
It moves from the general to the specific. from a pattern that might be logically or theoretically explected to observations that test whether the expected pattern actually occurs.
What is pure research?
"knowledge for its own sake"
what is a null hypothesis?
hypothesis that suggests there is no relatioship among the variable under study.