AP Psychology

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AP Psychology
2011-09-19 22:54:42
school AP Psychology

this is a review for AP psychology chapter 1-3( Myers' psychology for AP)
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  1. what is structuralism?
    an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
  2. what is functionalism
    a school of psychology thaat focused on how our minds procesed information.
  3. who was sigmund freud
    he developed the infulential psychoanalytic theory of personality
  4. what is cognative neuroscience?
    the study of the brain activity linked with mental activity
  5. what is behavior?
    anything an organism does.
  6. what are psychometrics?
    the measurements of our abilities, attitudes, and traits
  7. what is basic research?
    builds psychology's knowledge base
  8. what is applied research?
    reasearch to solve problems
  9. what is hindsight bias
    the beilif that after learning an outcome one would havae forseen it.
  10. what is a theory
    explains through an intergrated set of principlpes that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
  11. whatis an operational defenition
    defines something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. That is, one defines something in terms of the operations that led to its presence
  12. what is a case study?
    an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all
  13. what is the survey method?
    a technique for accerting the self reported attitues, behaviors of thoughts of a particular grouop of people.
  14. what is naturalistic obervatoin
    when you record something in its natural environment. does NOT explani behavior it just simply records and describes it.
  15. whatis a correlation?
    • a measure of the extent of which two factors vary together. and how well the factors predict each other.
    • many times scatter plots are used to find correlations.
  16. what is causation?
    how one variable affeects another variable.
  17. what is an illusory correlation?
    when we belive that there is a correlation but in reality there isn't.
  18. what is random assignment?
    assinging participants to experimental and control groupss by chance.
  19. what is a double-bind procedure?
    when neither the research participants nor the researchers know wherther the reseaerch participants have recived a placebo or a real treatment.
  20. who is the control group?
    the groiup that is not being exposed to the treatment. they are there to be compared to the experimental groups.
  21. whats an independant variable.
    the experimental factor that is manipulated. the variable whose efffect is being studied. ex/ mans weight, age and personality
  22. what is a dependant variable?
    the outcome of the factor. the variable may change in response to the manipulatoin of the independant variable.
  23. what are neurons
    nerve cells
  24. sensory neurons
    carry incoming messages from the body tissue to the brain
  25. what are motor neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle ans glands
  26. what are dendrites
    they are bushy extensions of neurons, messages pass to other neurons throught them. usually short
  27. axon
    passes the message along to other neurons or to muscle glands. can be very long
  28. axons and dendrites short
    axons speak, dendrites listen
  29. what is the myelin sheath
    a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons. enables faster transmission speed of neural impulses. very important part of the nerve without it it couldn't communucate fast enough
  30. whatis action potential
    a brief electrical charge that tralvels down the axon
  31. whats an ion
    an electrically charged ion
  32. what is a threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  33. what does the all or none response mean/
    it means that nerves fire or don't fire at all.
  34. where is the synapse
    the meeting point between 2 neurons.
  35. if axons and dendrites don't touch how do they pass messages along?
    neurotransmitters (chemicals) are released and they pass along the nerve to the other. they cross the synaptic gap and go to the other neuron by binding to the receptor sites.
  36. how do sodium potassium pumps play a part in the transfer of neurotransmitters?
    they are the mechanism by which ions are allowed to pass through the membrane of the neural cell. the pump brings in positivly charged ions into the cell and then pumps them back out.
  37. what is dopamine?
    a chemical that influences movement, learning, and emotion
  38. what are endorphins?
    natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.
  39. what does the spinal cord do?
    an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system(a system that you can control or it can act on its own) to the brain
  40. what is the endocrine system?
    a second communicatoins system that secretes hormones into the booldstream.