Signs and symptoms of _____ include: substernal discomfort, paresthesias, dyspnea, restlessness, fatigue, malaise, progressive respiratory difficulty.
Which oxygen device is the most reliable and accurate for delivering precise concentration of oxygen. (high flow)
What is the concentration of oxygen in room air?
What is the administration of oxygen at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure greater than one atmosphere called?
The FiO2 is determined by what?
If the PaO2 is normal, then the amount of FiO2 is correct
Which type of mechanical ventilation is most similar to spontaneous respirations?
Negative pressure ventilation
What type of ventilator is most often used in hospitals?
Positive pressure ventilators (volume cycled)
_____ is the creation of a surgical opening in the thoracic cavity. Used to diagnose lung or chest diseases.
What are the hallmarks of the severity of atelectasis?
Tachypnea, dyspnea, and mild to moderate hypoxemia
What are 2 examples of Chronic respiratory failure?
COPD and neuromuscular disorder. Patient develops tolerance to the worsening hypoxemia and hypercapnia
What is the most frequent cause of Cor pulmonale (heart disease)
An increase in the pulmonary arterial pressure exceeding 30 mmHG which is measured through right sided heart cath
Pulmonary embolism is most often due to what?
a blood clot. Most often the thrombus orginates in the legs called a DVT
_____ occurs when the parietal or visceral pleura is breached and exposed to positive air pressure.
______ is where air enters the pleural space b/c there is a hole in the visceral or parietal pleura
Simple or spontaneous pneumothorax
______ occurs when air enters the pleural space eitehr through a hole in the lung or a hole in the chest wall. Occurs with abdominal wounds as well as chest wounds.
______ occurs when there is a hole in the lung or a small hole in the chest wall. With each breath, tension increases in the pleural space and the lung collapses. Heart and great vessels and trachea shift toward unaffected side.
_______ is compression of the heart as a result of build up in the pericardial sac. Caused by blunt or penetrating trauma
How often do you aspirate the stomach contents for a patient with an NG tube to determine if stomach is emptying?
Every 4 hours
if more than 50 ml is present, then the next feeding may need to be delayed or continous feeding stopped for an hour then reassess.
What is best method to identify NGT placement?
Presence of cough and sputum for at least 3 months in each of 2 consecutive years
Impaired gas exchange results from destruciton of the walls of the overdistended alveoli.