BIOL 223 - Chapter 4-1

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BIOL 223 - Chapter 4-1
2011-10-08 19:08:25
anatomy tissues

Study cards 1st half of Chapter 4 - BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. Define tissue.
    A collection of similar cells and surrounding substances
  2. What are the three characteristics used for tissue classification?
    • cell structure
    • composition of surrounding material
    • function
  3. List the four types of tissue.
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  4. List the five types of cell junctions.
    • gap junction
    • tight junction
    • adherens junction
    • desmosome
    • hemidesmosome
  5. What is the purpose of the pores/channels that span the space between cells in a gap junction?
    to all for the very quick transport of ions
  6. In what type of tissue will gap junctions commonly be found?
    muscle tissue
  7. What is the benefit/function of tight junctions?
    to create a permeability barrier due to the cells being woven together in a web of tissue
  8. Where, in the human body, are you likely to find tight junctions?
    the digestive tract
  9. When two cells are anchored to each other by means of a protein plaque it is an example of an:
    adherens junction
  10. In what type of tissue do we find adherens junctions?
    epithelial tissue that is on top of an underlying muscle layer
  11. How does a desmosome bind cells together?
    protein plaques that are connected by intermediate filaments
  12. Where in the human body do we find desmosomes?
    the skin
  13. Which type of cell junction utilizes microfilaments to connect protein plaques?
    adherens junction
  14. The type of cell junctions that connects the bottom layer of skin to the underlying tissue is known as a:
  15. How many protein plaques are found in a hemidesmosome?
  16. What are the five functions of epithelial tissue discussed in class?
    • protect underlying tissue from abrasion
    • act as a physical barrier
    • control filtration, diffusion, and osmosis
    • produce secretions
    • provide sensory data
  17. What are the two major categories of epithelium?
    • epithelia
    • glands
  18. Where are exocrine secretions released?
    onto the surface of an epithelial cell or tissue
  19. Where are endocrine secretions released?
    directly into the blood
  20. List the three types of secretions produced by glands.
    • serous secretion
    • mucus secretion
    • mixed secretion
  21. A secretion that is thin and water, such as human sweat, is a _______ secretion.
  22. A secretion that is thick and viscous is called a _______ secretion.
  23. An example of a mixed solution in humans would be:
  24. How do merocrine glands release their secretions?
  25. How do apocrine glands release their secretions?
    multiple vesicles move into the apical part of the cell and a "cleavage furrow" pinches that part of the cell off
  26. A gland which releases secretion by rupturing the entire cell is a _______ gland.
  27. List the five common characteristics of epithelium.
    • polarity
    • cellularity
    • covers body surfaces
    • avascularity
    • ability to regenerate
  28. Define polarity in regards to epithelia.
    the specific orientation of cells
  29. All epithelial tissue rests on a:
    basement membrane
  30. The surface of epithelial tissue that faces the environment is called the:
    apical surface
  31. The surface of epithelial tissue that faces the basement membrane is the:
    basal surface
  32. The surface of epithelial cells that faces other cells is known as the:
    lateral surface
  33. What does cellularity mean in regards to epithelial tissue?
    epithelial tissue is made up only of cells
  34. True or False: Epithelial tissue is made up of cells, fibers, and an extracellular fluid or matrix.
    False - epithelial tissue is comprised only of cells
  35. List three places that epithelial tissue provides a covering for body surfaces.
    • outside of the body
    • hollow organs
    • blood vessels
  36. True or False: Epithelial tissue is found on all surfaces of the body exposed to the environment either directly or indirectly.
  37. Define avascularity in relation to epithelial tissue.
    epithelial tissue is not penetrated by blood vessels
  38. How does avascularity affect epithelial tissue.
    • blood supply located in adjacent connective tissue
    • ions and nutrients move into epithelial tissue by means of diffusion
    • cells further from the basement membrane lose ability to gain nutrients and die off
  39. Why does epithelial tissue need to regenerate?
    to maintain and repair the protective surfaces
  40. How does epithelial tissue regenerate?
    by means of germinative "stem" cells located near or at the basement membrane
  41. What is the function of cilia?
    to move in a wavelike fashion and move things across the surface of the cell
  42. What is the benefit of microvilli on the surface of a cell?
    increased membrane surface increases diffusion/transport
  43. What is the function of goblet cells?
    production of mucens that will combine with water to form mucus
  44. What are the two characteristics used in the classification of epithelia?
    • arrangement of layers
    • cell shape
  45. True or False: In simple epithelium every cell touches the basement membrane.
  46. One single layer of epithelial cells is classified as:
    simple epithelium
  47. A single layer of tall and short cells where each cell touches the basement membrane and exhibits uneven placement of nuclei is known as:
    pseudostratified epithelium
  48. Epithelial tissue that has multiple layers is known as:
    stratified epithelium
  49. Epithelial cells that are thin and flat and look like fried eggs are called:
  50. Epithelial cells that are roughly as tall as they are wide are known as:
  51. Epithelial cells that are much taller than they are wide are classified as:
  52. Which cell shape is most commonly found in pseudostratified tissue?
  53. A single layer of thin flat cells is known as:
    simple squamos epithelium
  54. List the four locations of simple squamos epithelium discussed in class.
    • blood vessels
    • lining of the heart wall
    • alveoli
    • lining of hollow organs
  55. Simple squamos epithelium that lines your body cavities is known as:
  56. Simple squamos epithelium that lines the inside of your heart and blood vessels is known as:
  57. What are the two primary functions of simple squamos epithelium discussed in class?
    • reduce friction
    • regulate permeability
  58. True or False: You get the most transport from simple squamos epithelium.
  59. A single layer of epithelium provides for the _____ transport and the _____ protection.
    most, least
  60. A single layer of "dice" shaped cells is known as what type of epithelium?
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  61. List the four locations of simple cuboidal epithelium discussed in class.
    • kidney tubules
    • thyroid gland
    • other glands and ducts
    • terminal bronchials
  62. What are the three functions of simple cuboidal epithelium discussed in class?
    • secretion
    • absorbtion
    • protection
  63. A single layer of tall, skinny cells is described as:
    simple columnar epithelium
  64. List the three locations of simple columnar epithelium discussed in class.
    • digestive tract
    • gall bladder
    • uterine tract
  65. Simple columnar epithelium almost always has what type of specialized structure?
    goblet cells
  66. True or False: Simple columnar epithelium can be either ciliated or non-ciliated.
  67. List the three functions of simple columnar epithelium discussed in class.
    • secretion
    • absorbtion
    • protection
  68. When viewing simple columnar epithelium the nuclei should appear to be in what orientation?
    a straight line
  69. What bodily process/system is associated with pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
  70. What four locations were given in class for pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
    • nasal cavities
    • trachea
    • pharynx
    • bronchi
  71. What are the two functions of pseudostratified columnar epithelium given in class?
    • secretion
    • protection
  72. The primary secretion of pseudostratified columnar epithelium is:
  73. Multiple layers of thin, flat cells are classified as what type of tissue?
    stratified squamos epithelium
  74. What are the four locations of stratified squamos epithelium discussed in class?
    • oral cavity
    • vagina
    • anus/rectum
    • skin
  75. What is the primary function of stratified squamos epithelium?
  76. Keratinized stratified squamos tissue is found in what type of evironment?
  77. True or False: The stratified squamos epithelium found in the oral cavity, vagina, and rectum is non-keratinized.
  78. Stratified epithelium is always classified by the shape of cells at which surface, apical or basement?
  79. True or False: Stratified squamos epithelium provides for lots of nutrient transport.
    False - the thickness of the layers provides for lots of protection, but very little transport
  80. Multiple layers of "dice" shaped cells is classified as what type of tissue?
    stratified cuboidal epithelium
  81. What were the two locations of stratified cuboidal epithelium discussed in class?
    • ducts of some glands
    • part of the mammary gland
  82. True or False: Stratified cuboidal epithelium is not very common in the human body.
  83. List the three functions of stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    • secretion
    • absorbtion
    • protection
  84. A multiple layer of cells whose apical layer is tall and skinny would be classified as:
    stratified columnar epithelium
  85. List the three locations of stratified columnar epithelium discussed in class.
    • ducts of the salivary glands
    • urethra
    • epiglottis
  86. What is the primary function of stratified columnar epithelium?
  87. True or False: Secretion and absorbtion are major functions of stratified columnar epithelium.
    False - the thickness of the tissue provides for very little transport of secretions
  88. Epithelial tissue that is cuboidal is shape but appears squamos when distended is known as:
    transitional epithelium
  89. What two locations in the human body will you find transitional epithelium?
    • bladder
    • ureters
  90. What is the primary function/benefit of transitional epithelium?
    allows for distention