Develop Psych EXAM 1

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ht2lvu
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102556
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Develop Psych EXAM 1
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2011-09-19 18:12:23
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psychology developmental
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Chapters 1-6
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  1. characteristics of life-span perspective
    • Lifelong
    • multidimensional
    • multidirectional
    • plastic
    • multidisciplinary
    • contextual
  2. life-span perspective
    views developmental as having six characteristics that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
  3. normative age-graded influences
    similar for people in a particular age group
  4. normative history-graded influences
    common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances
  5. normative life events
    unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual's life
  6. periods of development
    • prenatal
    • infancy
    • early childhood
    • middle and late childhood
    • adolescence
    • early adulthood
    • middle adulthood
    • late adulthood
  7. developemental period
    a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features
  8. prenatal period
    conception to birth, growth that takes place in a 9 month time period
  9. infancy period
    • birth to 18 or 24 months
    • dependence upon adults
    • beginning of psychological periods
  10. early childhood
    • end of infancy to age 5 or 6
    • "preschool years"
    • learn to take care of themselves and play with peers
  11. middle and late childhood
    • 6 to 11 years, skills of reading and writing and arithmetic develop
    • achievement is the goal
    • self-control increases
  12. adolescnce
    • 10/12 to 18/21 years
    • rapid physical changes
    • independence and identity
  13. early adulthood
    • early 20's to 30's
    • personal and economic dependence
    • career development
    • selecting a mate and beginning a family
  14. middle adulthood
    • 40 to 60
    • expand personal and economic independence and responsibility
    • helping the next generation
  15. late adulthood
    • 60/70's to death
    • review retirement and adjustment
  16. four stages of life-span development
    • first age
    • second age
    • third age
    • fourth age
  17. first age
    childhood and adolescence
  18. second age
    • prime adulthood
    • 20s through 50s
  19. third age
    about 60 to 79 years
  20. fourth age
    about 80 years and older
  21. age and happiness
    • a U-shaped result
    • lowest happiness at 30-40 years
    • adults are happier as they age
    • more content with what they have, have better relationships, are less pressured to achieve
  22. four types of age
    • chronological age
    • biological age
    • psychological age
    • social age
  23. chronological age
    number of years that have elapsed since birth
  24. biological age
    person's age in terms of biological health
  25. psychological age
    individual's adaptive capacities compares with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
  26. social age
    social roles and expectations related to a person's age
  27. chromosomes
    • threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each parent
    • contains DNA
  28. DNA
    complex molecule that contains genetic information
  29. genes
    • units of hereditary information composed of DNA
    • Reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life
  30. mitosis
    cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed
  31. meiosis
    specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm
  32. fertilization
    stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell (zygote)
  33. zygote
    single cell formed through fertilization
  34. genotype
    person's genetic heritage, the actual genetic material
  35. phenotype
    the way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics
  36. down syndrome
    • a chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation
    • Caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21
  37. klinefelter syndrome
    a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, it is XXY instead of XY
  38. fragile x syndrome
    a genetic disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, becomes constricted and often breaks
  39. turner syndrome
    a chromosome disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or the second X chromosome is partially deleted
  40. xxy syndrome
    a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome
  41. ultrasound sonography
    high-frequency sound waves are directed into the woman's abdomen, detect structural abnormalities, number of fetuses, and sex
  42. fetal MRI
    diagnose fetal malformations, uses powerful magnet and radio images to generate detailed images of the body's organs and structures
  43. chorionic villus sampling
    detect genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities, a small sample of the placenta is removed
  44. amniocentesis
    a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders
  45. maternal blood screening
    identifies pregnancies with elevated risk for birth defects
  46. noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD)
    mainly focused on isolation and examination of fetal cells circulating in the mother's blood and analysis of cell-free fatal DNA in maternal plasma
  47. teratogen
    any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes
  48. teratology
    field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects
  49. dose
    the greater of an agent, the greater the effect
  50. genetic susceptibility
    type or severity of abnormalities caused by drug is linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the embryo or fetus
  51. time of exposure
    teratogens do more damage when they occur at some points in development than at others
  52. psychoactive drugs
    drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods
  53. types of psychoactive drugs
    caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, heroin
  54. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
    a cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy
  55. apgar scale
    assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth, evaluates an infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflect irritability
  56. brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment (NBAS)
    measure used in the first month of life to assess the newborn's neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects
  57. neonatal intensive care unit network neurobehavioral scale (NNNS)
    • "offspring" of the NBAS
    • provides an assessment of the newborn's behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
  58. low birth weight infants
    infant that weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth
  59. preterm infants
    those born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation
  60. small for date infants
    infants' birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered
  61. postpartum depression
    Characteristic of women who have strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks in the postpartum period
  62. postpartum period
    the period after childbirth when the mother adjusts (physically and psychologically) to the process of childbirth, lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a new prepregnant state
  63. the two patterns of growth
    Cephalocaudal and proximodistal pattern
  64. cephalocaudal pattern
    sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top with physical growth gradually working from tope to bottom
  65. proximodistal pattern
    the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
  66. shaken baby syndrome
    Includes brain swelling and hemorrage
  67. lobes of the brain
    • frontal
    • occipital
    • temporal
    • parietal
  68. frontal lobe
    involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose
  69. occipital lobe
    funtion in vision
  70. temporal lobe
    have an active role in hearing, language, processing, and memory
  71. parietal lobe
    play important roles in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
  72. lateralization
    specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
  73. myelin sheath
    Insulates axons and helps electrical signals travel faster down the axon
  74. sudden infant death syndrom (SIDS)
    a condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing and suddenly dies without an apparent cause
  75. outcomes of breast feeding
    • Breast fed infants have fewer gastrointestinal infections
    • Fewer lower respiratory tract infection
    • Fewer allergies
    • Protects agains wheezing unclear about asthma
    • Less likely to develop middle ear infections
    • Lower risk of skin rashes
    • Less likely to become obese in childhood adolescents
    • Lower risk for type 1 diabetes in childhood and type 2 in adulthood
    • Less likely to die from SIDS
    • Decrease risk for Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer
    • Some evidence suggest small reduction in type 2 diabetes
  76. dynamic systems view
    Development is an active process in which nature and nurture work together as part of an ever-changing system
  77. reflexes
    • Built-in reactions to stimuli
    • automatic and inborn
  78. rooting reflex
    • occurs when infant's cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched
    • infant turns his or her head toward the side that was touch
    • effort to find something to suck
  79. sucking relfex
    • reaction to automatically suck an object placed in its mouth
    • enables infant to get nourishment
    • serves as self-soothing or self-refulating mechanism
  80. moro reflex
    • occurs in reaction to a sudden, intense noise or movement
    • arches its back, throws its head back, and flings out arms and legs
    • then rapidly closes its arms and legs to the center of the body
  81. grasping relfex
    response that occurs when something touches the infant's palm
  82. gross motor skills
    motor skills that involve large-muscle activities
  83. fine motor skills
    motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements
  84. palmer grasp
    grasping with the whole hand
  85. pincer grip
    grasping with the thumb and forefinger
  86. visual preference method
    studying whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli
  87. habituation
    decreased responsiveness to stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus
  88. dishabituation
    recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
  89. visual perception of a newborn
    • 20/240
    • 2-month old scans more than 1 month old
    • spend longer time looking at mother's face than a stranger's face
  90. depth perception
    miniture cliff
  91. schemes
    actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
  92. adaptation
    involved adjusting to new environmental task demands
  93. cognitive processes of children
    • schemes
    • assimilation
    • accommodation
  94. behavioral schemes
    Consists of simple actions that can be performed on objects such as sucking, grasping, looking
  95. mental schemas
    • develop in childhood
    • Include strategies and plans for solving problems
  96. assimilation
    concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
  97. accommodation
    adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
  98. organization
    the grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system
  99. equilibration
    the mechanism by which children shift
  100. simple reflexes
    coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors
  101. Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development
    • simple reflexes
    • first habits and primary circular reactions
    • secondary circular reactions
    • coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
    • internalization of schemes
  102. first habits & primary circular reactions
    • coordination of sensation and two types of schemes: habits and primary circular reactions
    • main focus on infant's body
  103. secondary circular reactions
    • become more object-oriented
    • moving beyond self-preoccupation
    • repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results
  104. coordination of secondary circular reactions
    • coordination of vision and touch
    • hand-eye coordination
    • coordination of schemes and intentionality
  105. tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
    • become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the things they can make happen to objects
    • experiment with new behavior
  106. internalization of schemes
    develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representation
  107. object permanence
    understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched
  108. memory
    • central feature of cognitive development
    • all info that an individual retains over time
  109. implicit memory
    • memory without conscious recollection
    • involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed
  110. explicit memory
    memory of facts and experiences that individuals consciously know and can state
  111. deferred imitation
    imitation that occurs after a dely of hours or days
  112. language
    form of communication based on a system of symbols
  113. infinite generativity
    ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
  114. phonology
    • sound system of the language
    • the sounds that are used and how they may be combined
  115. morphology
    units of meaning involved in word formation
  116. syntax
    the ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
  117. semantics
    meaning of words and sentences
  118. pragmatics
    appropriate use of language in different contexts
  119. primary emotions
    • emotions that are present in humans and other animals
    • emerge early in life
  120. self-conscious emotions
    emotions that require self-awareness, especially consciousness and a sense of "me"
  121. basic cry
    rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, briefer silence, a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than main cry, then abrief rest before the next cry
  122. anger cry
    variationg o basic cry with more excess air forced through the vocal cords
  123. pain cry
    a sudden appearance of a long, initial loud cry without preliminary moaning, followed by breath holding
  124. reflexive smile
    • a smile that does not occur in a response to external stimuli
    • happens month after birth, usually during sleep
  125. social smile
    smile in response to an external stimulus
  126. stranger anxiety
    an infant's fear and wariness of strangers
  127. seperation protest
    an infant's distressed crying when the caregiver leaves
  128. temperament
    involves individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and charactertistic ways of responding
  129. easy child
    • child who is generally in a positive mood
    • quickly established regular routines in infancy
    • adapts easily to new experiences
  130. difficult child
    • child who tends to react negatively and cry frequently
    • engages in irregular daily routines
    • slow to accept change
  131. slow-to-warm-up child
    • child has low activity levels
    • somewhat negative
    • displays a low intensity of mood
  132. goodness of fit
    refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope
  133. social referencing
    "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation
  134. attachment
    a close emotional bond between two people
  135. strange situation
    • an observational measure of infant attachment
    • requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, seperations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger
  136. securely attached babies
    babies that use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment
  137. insecure avoidant babies
    babies that show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver
  138. insecure resistant babies
    • babies that often cling to the caregiver
    • then resist the caregiver by fighting against the closeness
  139. insecure disorganized babies
    babies that show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented

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