Pharm- opthalmic

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Author:
HLW
ID:
102567
Filename:
Pharm- opthalmic
Updated:
2011-09-18 17:22:06
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Pharm Opthalmic
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Pharm
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  1. 3 Barriers of the eye:
    • Blood retinal
    • Blood Aqueous
    • Blood Vitreous
  2. Tears are composed of:
    • Lipids
    • Aqueous
    • Mucin Mixture
    • (=> Tear Film)
  3. Which layers are hydrophobic/phillic?
    • Epithelial Layer= phobic
    • Stroma= philic
    • Corneal Endothelium= phobic
  4. What variable property of the eye => increased binding
    Increased melanin
  5. What type of nerves innervate the sphincter smooth m in the anterior chamber?
    Parasympathetic
  6. Sympathomimetic drugs=>
    Dilation (mydriasis)
  7. Parasympathomimetic drugs =>
    Miosis
  8. Opioids =>
    Pinpoint pupils
  9. What can cause opacity of the lens?
    • Age
    • Drugs (glucocorticoids)
    • Dz (Diabetes M)
  10. Where can passage of drugs occur inward or outward via BVs?
    Sclera
  11. Target for Tx of Glaucoma
    NMDA receptor
  12. Tx for optical neuritis:
    IV Gleucocorticoids
  13. Which admin route will => rapid absorption?
    • Topical
    • Intraocular
    • +/-Subconjunctival
  14. What are intravitreal injections/devices used to Tx?
    • Endopthalmis
    • Retinits
  15. In General, what pathways/routes do drugs enter systemic circulation?
    • Corneal
    • Conjunctival/Scleral
    • Nasolacrimal
  16. What are the 3 types of formulations?
    • Solutions
    • Suspensions
    • Gels/Ointments/Solid Inserts
  17. Which formulation=> prolonged time on eye surface?
    Gels/Ointments/solid Inserts
  18. What determines absorpton after topical admin?
    • Time in cul-de-sac/precorneal tear film
    • Elimination by Nasolacrimal Drainage
    • Binding to tear proteins
    • Metab by tear/tissue proteins
    • Diffusion across cornea/conjunctiva
  19. What pathways allow TOPICAL drugs enter systemic distribution?
    • Nasal Mucosal
    • Local (Conjunctiva-Cornea)
    • Transcorneal:accumulation in aqueous humor
  20. Metabolism within the eye occurs by
    • Enzymatic biotranformation (Esterases)
    • Systemic Biotranformatio (Liver/kidney)
  21. Therapeutic Targets of Opthalmic Drugs:
    • Infectious
    • Non-Infectious (trauma, immune, +P, etc)
    • Symptomatic (Pain)
    • Diagnostic (Local Anesth, Dyes, etc)
  22. Most Bacterial Infections are caused by.... (G+/-)
    Dogs:
    Cats:
    Horses:
    Ruminants:
    • Dogs: G+
    • Cats: G+ & G- RARE
    • Horses: G+ & G-
    • Cattle: G- & G+
  23. infections in dogs are caused by which organisms?
    • Staph
    • Strep
  24. infections in cats are caused by which organisms?
    • Staph
    • Strep
    • Myco. Felis
    • (Chlamydia felis, rare)
  25. infections in horses are caused by which organisms?
    • Staph
    • Strep Zoo
    • Pseudomonas (-)
  26. Tx for Conjunctivitis
    • Bacitracin
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Erythromycin
    • Gentamycin-amikacin
    • Ticarcillin-clavulanate-ampi
    • Polymixin B
    • Trobramycin
  27. Tx for blepharitis (5):
    • Bacitracin
    • Erythromycin
    • Gentamicin-amikacin
    • Polymyxin B
    • Tobramycin
  28. Tx For Keratitis:
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Fluoroquinolones
    • Gentamicin-amikacin
    • Polymyxin B
    • Tobramycin
  29. Which Drugs have ++ distribution?
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Fluoroquinolones
  30. Which can't be used in food animals?
    Erythromycin
  31. Frist choice for ulcers and conjunctivitis?
    BNP
  32. Groups of anitfungal opthalmic drugs:
    • Polyenes
    • Azoles
    • Nucleoside Analogs
  33. Broad Spectrum antifungals:
    • Amphotericin B
    • Miconazole
    • Itraconazole (+DMSO)
    • Flucystosine
  34. Focus of glaucoma Tx:
    • Decrease production of Aqueous Humor
    • Increase Outflow
  35. What types of drugs are usde to Tx Glaucoma?
    • Topical prostaglandin analogs
    • B Adrenergic Antagonists
    • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • Topical Mydriatics
  36. Mechanism of topical prostaglandin analogs in Tx of Glaucoma
    Facilitates Outflow via uveoscleral pathway
  37. Mechanism of B-Adrenoreceptor anatgonists in Tx of Glaucoma
    Regulates aqueous humor production
  38. What type of drug is latanoprost?
    topical prostaglandin analogs, for glaucoma
  39. What type of drug is timolol maleate?
    B Adrenoreceptor antagonist
  40. Topical Anti-inflammatory drugs
    • NSAIDs
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Antihistamines
    • Cyclosporine A
  41. Local/Topical Anetsthetics:
    • Proparacaine & Tetracaine
    • Lidocaine & Bupivicaine (infiltration)
  42. Disinfectants used
    2% povidone iodine

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