establishes an environmement for healing and repair
Inflammation is always present with infection; infection is not always present with inflammation
Causes of Inflammatory response
Heat, Radiation, trauma, Allergens, Infection
Intensity of the response deponds on ..
Extent and severity of injury
reactive capacity of injured person
Describe a vascular response.
Includes the blood
Arterials vasoconstrict after the release of histamine and other chemicals then vessels dilate(increase blood flow and filtration)
What is chemotaxis?
Chemotaxis- migration of WBC along a concentration gradient of chemotactic factors, substance that attract leukocytes to the site of inflammation. It ensures accumulation of neutrophils and monocytes at the focus of injury
What are the components of Cellular response
Eosinophills and basophils
1st on site(few)
Phagocytsize bacteria and other foreign material and damaged cells.
short life span
pus is formed by accumulation of dead neutrophilles and digested bacteria
elevated WBC due to the bone marrow release immature fotms of neutrophils( band) into circulation; shift to the left)
2nd on site -assist in phagocytosis
on entering tissue spaces monocytes tranform into macrophages
long life span and can multiply
clean the area befor healing can occur.
Cells may fuse to form a multi giant cells. Giants cells attempt to phagocyte particales too large macrophages
later at the cite
primary role is cell mediated immunity (b cells/t cells/ t helper cells) and humoral immunity (antibodies)
released in large quantities in allergic reaction .
Release the chemical that act to control the effects of histamine and serotoni
Phagocytosis of allergen antibodies and anaphylactic shock
carry histamine and heparin in their granuales that are released during inflammation
limited phagocytic capabilities
Redness, Heat, Pain, swelling and loss of function
Increse WBC (shift to the left, malaise, nausea, fever, Anerexia.
Increase pulse and respirations (follows the rise in metabolism
changes due to complement activation and release of cytokines
Fever trigger cytokines
CHills (body attempt to increase temp and fever (hypathalmus)
Formation of exudate
consist of fluids and leukocytes that move from the circulation to the site of injury.
After cell injury, arterioles in area briefly undergo transiet vasoconstriction
afyer the release of histamine and other chemicals byt the injured cells, vessels dilate resulting in hyperemia(increase bloos)
results in hyperemia
increased blood flow in the area
raises filtration pressure
vasodilation chemical mediators (vascular and chemical response)
endothelial cell retraction
increased capillary permeability
Movement of fluid from capillaries into tissue spaces
Fluid in tissue spaces(vascular response)
inititally composed of serous fluid (blood/fluid)
later contains plasma proteins, primarily albumin(protein exert oncotic pressure that furthers draws fluid from blood vessels; tissues become edenatous)
What are the chemical mediators
complement system(major mediator of inflammation)
leukocytes- ensures accumulation of neutrophils and monocytte at the focus of injury.
Explain the complement system
enhanced phagocytosis, increase vascular permeability, chemataxis and cellular lysis
(can be synthesized from phosopholipis of cell membranes of most body tissues include blood cells
proinflammatory contributing to increased blood flows, edema and pain
What are drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis
NSiads( inhibits Prostogladis)
Asprin(work as a blood thinner)
Corticosteroids- weaken the immune system , blocks infection from showing
trigger by the release of cytokines. they cause fever by their ability to initiate metabolic changes in the temp-regulating center(hypothalamus)
Benefits are increase killing of microorganism and increase phagocytosis and profilieration of t cells
three types of inflammation
(Difference is duration)
Explain an Acute inflammation
doesnt know underlying cause(2-3 wks, neutrophils are predominent)
Explain subacute inflammation
same features as acute inflammation but last longer
Explain Chronic Inflammation
lyphocyte and macrophages,
may include changes in immune system
stages of healing
What is Regeneration?
replacement of lost cells and tissues with cells of rge same type.
Stable cells (liver, bone, kidney, pancrease) regenerate in response to injury
permenant cells (cardiac, neurons, skeletal) do not divide
healing as a result of lost cells being replaced with connective tissue
result in scar formation
What is primary intention and what are their phases?
wound margins are neatly approximated (paper cut, surgical incisions)
initial phase(3-5 days) edges of the incision are 1st alligned and surtured in place. Fibrin clots, erythocyted, neutrophils fills the site