BIOL 223 - Chapter 4-2

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christophertkennedy
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102607
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BIOL 223 - Chapter 4-2
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2011-10-08 19:07:43
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anatomy tissues
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Study cards for 2nd half of Chapter 4 - BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. What three components comprise connective tissue?
    • cell populations
    • protein fibers
    • ground substance
  2. Which two of the three components of connective tissue make up the matrix?
    • protein fibers
    • ground substance
  3. The suffix -cyte, refers to a:
    mature adult cell
  4. The suffix -clast, refers to:
    cells that break down tissue
  5. The suffix -blast, refers to:
    cells that build up tissue
  6. A cell that builds up bone tissue is known as an:
    osteoblast
  7. A cell that breaks down bone tissue is known as a:
    osteoclast
  8. What is the primary function of adipocytes?
    fat storage
  9. What is the primary function of mast cells?
    to produce and release histamine and heparin
  10. The substance released by mast cells that increases inflammation and vasodilation is:
    histamine
  11. Heparin is an:
    anti-coagulant
  12. What is the primary function of melanocytes?
    to produce melanin
  13. Mesenchymal cells are essentially:
    stem cells
  14. Large phagocytic cells that engulf old cells and worn out organelles are called:
    macrophages
  15. Cells that secrete protein fibers and build up connective tissues are known as:
    fibroblasts
  16. A mature connective tissue cell is called a:
    fibrocyte
  17. A cell that travels around looking for pathogens and initiating an immune response is a:
    lymphocyte
  18. Small phagocytic cells are known as:
    microphages
  19. List three characteristics of elastic fibers?
    • made up of elastins
    • able to stretch and recoil
    • branched
  20. List the three types of connective tissue fiber.
    • elastic
    • collagen
    • reticular
  21. List the three characteristics of collagen fibers.
    • made up of collagen
    • strong
    • long and straight
  22. List the two characteristics of reticular fibers discussed in class.
    • made up of collagen
    • branched
  23. List the seven general functions of connective tissue.
    • connect tissue to each other
    • separate and surround tissue
    • movement and support
    • storage of nutrients
    • cushioning and insulation
    • transport
    • protection
  24. What are the two categories of connective tissue in regards to development?
    • embryonic
    • mature
  25. What are the two categories of connective tissue in regards to physical structure?
    • loose connective
    • dense connective
  26. Where will you find mesenchyme?
    under the skin of an embryo
  27. Mesenchyme is essentially:
    a population of stem cells
  28. What is the function of mesenchyme?
    to differentiate into all other types of connective tissue
  29. Where in the human body do you find mucous connective tissue?
    the umbillical cord
  30. What is the primary function of mucous connective tissue?
    to support embryonic life
  31. List the three classes of loose connective tissue.
    • areolar connective tissue
    • adipose tissue
    • reticular connective tissue
  32. What is the function of areolar connective tissue?
    it is a generalized "packing" tissue
  33. True or False: Areolar connective tissue is the most specialized of the connective tissues.
    False - it is the least specialized
  34. True or False: Areolar connective tissue can contain all nine cell types and all three fiber types.
    True
  35. List the three locations for adipose discussed in class.
    • deep to the skin
    • around the eyeballs
    • around the kidneys
  36. List the three functions of adipose discussed in class.
    • energy storage
    • cushioning
    • insulation
  37. In an adipocyte, where would you normally locate the nucleus?
    near the cell membrane
  38. What is a primary function of brown fat in infants?
    heat production
  39. List the four locations of reticular connective tissue discussed in class.
    • liver
    • spleen
    • kidney
    • bone marrow
  40. What is the primary function of reticular connective tissue?
    to provide a supportive framework
  41. List the four types of dense connective tissue discussed in lecture.
    • regular collagenous
    • irregular collagenous
    • regular elastic
    • irregular elastic
  42. List the three locations given for dense regular collagenous connective tissue in lecture.
    • ligaments
    • tendons
    • aponeurosis
  43. What are the two primary functions of dense regular collagenous connective tissue?
    • stabilizers
    • provide firm attachment
  44. True or False: Regular collagenous tissue can withstand tension or stretching only in the direction of fiber orientation.
    True
  45. A dense connective tissue whose fibers run in the same direction is classified as:
    regular connective tissue
  46. List the three locations of dense irregular collagenous connective tissue discussed in class.
    • muscle sheaths
    • deep dermis
    • organ capsules
  47. What is the primary function of dense irregular collagenous connective tissue?
    strength
  48. Where in the human body do we find dense regular elastic connective tissue?
    • vocal cords
    • ligaments between vertebrae
  49. What is the primary function of dense regular elastic connective tissue?
    stabilization
  50. What is the primary benefit of dense regular elastic connective tissue?
    able to expand and return to the original shape
  51. True or False: Dense regular elastic connective tissue can be stretched in any direction.
    False - it can only be safely stretched in the direction of fiber orientation
  52. Where in the human body do we encounter dense irregular elastic connective tissue?
    elastic arteries
  53. What are the two primary functions/benefits of dense irregular elastic connective tissue?
    • able to expand in all directions
    • returns to original shape after expansion
  54. What is the primary function of red blood cells?
    transportation of gases
  55. Blood consists of what two components?
    • fluid matrix or plasma
    • formed elements - blood cells
  56. List the three types of blood cells.
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
  57. List the five types of white blood cells discussed in class.
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • eosinophils
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
  58. Which type of white blood cell becomes a macrophage when it leaves the blood?
    monocytes
  59. Which type of white blood cell travels through the blood looking for pathogens?
    lymphocytes
  60. Which two types of white blood cells are microphages?
    • eosinophils
    • neutrophils
  61. Which type of white blood cell releases histamine and heparin in order to support mast cell function?
    basophils
  62. Little cell fragments that secrete clotting factors are known as:
    platelets
  63. List the four steps of the lymph process discussed in class.
    • lymph is collected from the interstitial space
    • monitored by the immune system
    • transported by the lymphatic system
    • returned by means of the venous system
  64. Cartilage is comprised of what two components?
    • chondrocytes
    • matrix
  65. List the three types of cartilage.
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  66. List the three locations of hyaline cartilage discussed in class.
    • embryonic skeleton
    • nasal septum
    • articulation of joints
  67. What are the two functions of hyaline cartilage discussed in class?
    • reduction of friction
    • support with flexibility
  68. Which type of cartilage has the least amount of visible fiber?
    hyaline cartilage
  69. List the three locations for elastic cartilage given in lecture.
    • epiglottis
    • auricle
    • auditory tubes
  70. What is the primary benefit of elastic cartilage?
    it withstands distortion
  71. True or False: Elastic cartilage is more maleable than hyaline cartilage.
    True
  72. In what two locations in the human body will you find fibrocartilage?
    • intervertebral discs
    • pubic symphisis
  73. What are the two functions of fibrocartilage discussed in class?
    • compression resistance
    • limit range of motion
  74. Which type of cartilage contains the greatest number of collagen fibers, and thus possesses the greatest amount of strengh?
    fibrocartilage
  75. List the three functions of bone.
    • structure
    • protection
    • mineral storage
  76. Describe the basic structure of bone.
    a hard mineral matrix with protein fibers
  77. Define membrane.
    physical barriers that line or cover a part of the body
  78. What is the basic structure of a membrane?
    an epithelium supported by a connective tissue
  79. List the four types of membranes.
    • mucous
    • serous
    • cutaneous
    • synovial
  80. List the three locations of mucous membranes discussed in class.
    • lining the stomach and intestines
    • lining most of our airways
    • lining cavities exposed to the environment
  81. List the two main components of mucous membranes.
    • columnar epithelium
    • areolar connective tissue
  82. A simple, thin membrane is known as:
    serous membrane
  83. Where would you likely find serous membrane?
    cavities of the body not exposed to the environment
  84. What are the two primary components of serous membrane?
    • simple squamos epithelium (mesothelium)
    • areolar connective tissue
  85. List the two primary components of cutaneous membrane.
    • ´╗┐epidermis - stratified squamos epithelium
    • dermis - connective tissue
  86. Which type of membrane lines your joints?
    synovial membrane
  87. What are the two primary components of synovial membrane?
    • simple squamos epithelium
    • areolar connective tissue
  88. Which type of muscle tissue are striated?
    skeletal and cardiac
  89. Which type of muscle tissue is voluntary?
    skeletal
  90. Which type of muscle tissue is involuntary?
    smooth and cardiac
  91. Which type of muscle tissue has multiple nuclei per cell?
    skeletal
  92. Which type of muscle tissue exhibits branching?
    cardiac
  93. Where will smooth muscle tissue be found?
    • walls of digestive tract
    • respiratory tract
    • urinary tract
    • blood vessels
  94. What is the primary function of smooth muscle tissue?
    to change the diameter or a tract or vessel
  95. What are the two types of nervous tissue?
    • neurons
    • neuroglia
  96. What are the four cardinal signs of Inflammation?
    • redness
    • heat
    • swelling
    • pain
  97. What is the primary function of neurons?
    to conduct electrical systems
  98. The nervous tissue that is a "support staff" for neurons is known as:
    neuroglia
  99. What type of cells removes toxins and waste products as part of the inflammation process.
    phagocytes
  100. What type of hormone causes pain?
    prostaglandins

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