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What are genes?
- Basic units of heredity
- Changes leads to mutation
- Speciic location on chromosome(locus)
- Phenotype(physical traits)
- genotype(genetic makeup)
- in the nucleus occurs in pairs (22 pairs)
- 22 autosomes
- 23 sex chromosomes
- Female XX males XY
- Genes are made of nucleic acid
- stores genetic info
- contains ribose
- transfer the genetic info obtain from DNA to proper location for protein synthesis
- Making proteins in 2 steps
- 1. Transcription MRNA is synthesized from single stranded DNA
- 2. Translation occurs in mrna attached to ribosomes
cell division results info is identical daughter cell
- sexual cells
- crossing over.
What is active acquired immunity?
- invasion of the body by foreign substance(microorganisms)
What is Passive acquired immunity??
host recieves antibodies to an antigen rather than synthesizing them
- injection of serum from immune human.
- short lived, doesnt retain memory cell
- causes immune system to produced antibodies
- elicits an immune response
organs parts of the immune response spread easily .
What is the function of lymph nodes
- filtration of foreign materials brought to the site
- circulation of lymphocytes
What is mononuclear pagocytes
monocytes in the blood and macrophages found throughout the body
they capture, process and present the antigen to the lymphocyte
- humoral response
- make antibodies against antigen
- antigen presenting cells
- b memory cells
bone marrow to the thymus
t cytotoxic cells?
- attack antigen on the cell membrane of foreign pathogens and releasing cytolytic substances that destroy the pathogen
- 2nd exposure may have a more serious response
- sensitized remain in the memory
T helper cells
regulation of cell mediated immunity and humoral antibody response.
natural killer cells?
- large lymphocytes with numerous granules in the cytoplasm
- recognition and killing of virus infected cells, tumor cell, transplanted graft
capture antigenst at the site of contrast and then transport an antigen until it encounter a t cell with specify for the antigen
- messanger btwn the cell types
- instruct cells to alter their proliferation, differentiation, secretion or activity
- stimulate bone marrow to make WBC
antibody mediated immunity
- B lymphocytes are involved,
- bacteria, viruses
- Ex) transfusion reationt, bacterial infection
Cell Mediated Immunity??
- immune responses that are initiated through specific antigen recognition by t cells.
- T lymphocytes, macrophages, nk cells
- ex)tubercolis graft rejection,
- sever allergy reaction
- brochial constriction/airway obstruction
- edema, itchin
- hypotension, dilated pupils, dyspnea, cyanosis
- IGE reaction
- mediated reactions
- Atopic reactions -localizes
- Type 1 hypersensitivity
- in plasma
- provides baby with immunity
- only one can cross the placents
Body secretion(line mucous membrane, Breast milk
- Blood antigen
- first one form
Type 2 hypersensitivity
- hemolytic transfusion reactions
- Goodpasture syndrom (lung/kidney failure)
- IGM, IGG
- Immune complex reaction
- t/b cells complex
Type 4 hypersensitivity
- no antibodies involved
- cytokines cells
- tb test
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