Med surg

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Med surg
2011-09-19 12:05:15

mechanism of disease pt2
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  1. What are genes?
    • Basic units of heredity
    • Changes leads to mutation
    • Speciic location on chromosome(locus)
    • Phenotype(physical traits)
    • genotype(genetic makeup)
  2. Chromosomes?
    • in the nucleus occurs in pairs (22 pairs)
    • 22 autosomes
    • 23 sex chromosomes
    • Female XX males XY
  3. DNA
    • Genes are made of nucleic acid
    • stores genetic info
  4. RNA
    • contains ribose
    • transfer the genetic info obtain from DNA to proper location for protein synthesis
  5. protein synthesis
    • Making proteins in 2 steps
    • 1. Transcription MRNA is synthesized from single stranded DNA
    • 2. Translation occurs in mrna attached to ribosomes
  6. Mitosis
    cell division results info is identical daughter cell
  7. Meiosis?
    • sexual cells
    • crossing over.
  8. What is active acquired immunity?
    • exposed
    • invasion of the body by foreign substance(microorganisms)
    • immunization
  9. What is Passive acquired immunity??
    host recieves antibodies to an antigen rather than synthesizing them

    • injection of serum from immune human.
    • short lived, doesnt retain memory cell
  10. ANtigen?
    • causes immune system to produced antibodies
    • elicits an immune response
  11. Lymphoid organ
    organs parts of the immune response spread easily .
  12. What is the function of lymph nodes
    • filtration of foreign materials brought to the site
    • circulation of lymphocytes
  13. What is mononuclear pagocytes
    monocytes in the blood and macrophages found throughout the body

    they capture, process and present the antigen to the lymphocyte
  14. B lymphocytes??
    • humoral response
    • make antibodies against antigen
    • antigen presenting cells
    • b memory cells
  15. t lymphocytes
    bone marrow to the thymus
  16. t cytotoxic cells?
    • attack antigen on the cell membrane of foreign pathogens and releasing cytolytic substances that destroy the pathogen
    • 2nd exposure may have a more serious response
    • sensitized remain in the memory
  17. T helper cells
    regulation of cell mediated immunity and humoral antibody response.
  18. natural killer cells?
    • large lymphocytes with numerous granules in the cytoplasm
    • recognition and killing of virus infected cells, tumor cell, transplanted graft
  19. Dendritic cells
    capture antigenst at the site of contrast and then transport an antigen until it encounter a t cell with specify for the antigen
  20. cytokines?
    • messanger btwn the cell types
    • instruct cells to alter their proliferation, differentiation, secretion or activity
    • stimulate bone marrow to make WBC
  21. humoral immunity??
    antibody mediated immunity

    • B lymphocytes are involved,
    • bacteria, viruses
    • Ex) transfusion reationt, bacterial infection
  22. Cell Mediated Immunity??
    • immune responses that are initiated through specific antigen recognition by t cells.
    • T lymphocytes, macrophages, nk cells
    • ex)tubercolis graft rejection,
  23. anaphalaxis?/
    • sever allergy reaction
    • brochial constriction/airway obstruction
    • edema, itchin
    • hypotension, dilated pupils, dyspnea, cyanosis
    • IGE reaction
  24. IGE
    • mediated reactions
    • Atopic reactions -localizes
    • Type 1 hypersensitivity
  25. IGG
    • in plasma
    • provides baby with immunity
    • only one can cross the placents
  26. IGA
    Body secretion(line mucous membrane, Breast milk
  27. IGM
    • Blood antigen
    • first one form
  28. Type 2 hypersensitivity
    • hemolytic transfusion reactions
    • Goodpasture syndrom (lung/kidney failure)
    • IGM, IGG
  29. Type 3
    • Immune complex reaction
    • t/b cells complex
  30. Type 4 hypersensitivity
    • delayed
    • no antibodies involved
    • cytokines cells
    • tb test