liver, pancreas, gallbladder

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Author:
Michelle25
ID:
102675
Filename:
liver, pancreas, gallbladder
Updated:
2011-09-19 20:00:24
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gb
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l,p,gb
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  1. An increase in bilirubin causes what symptom?
    Jaundice
  2. What gerontolical considerations need to be considered involving the liver?
    • medication metabolism is decreased
    • decrease in size and weight
    • decrease in hepatic blood flow
  3. In viral hepatitis, what should be expected with palpation of the liver?
    tenderness
  4. In alcoholic hepatits, what should be expected with palpation of the liver?
    No tenderness
  5. After a liver biopsy, what nursing interventions is most important?
    Turn patient to right side (must remain for 4 hours)
  6. An acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with a gallstone impacted in teh cystic duct, causing painful distention of the gallbladder
    Cholecystitis
  7. What is the most common cause of portal hypertension?
    Obstruction caused by cirrhosis of the liver
  8. _______ becomes evident when the bilirubin level exceeds 2.5 mg/dL
    Jaundice
  9. ________ jaundice is caused by cirrhosis or hepatitis
    Hepatocellular
  10. ______ jaundice is a result of increased destruction of red blood cells
    hemolytic
  11. ______ jaundice is caused by occlusion of the bile duct either from a gall stone, tumor, or enlarged organ. Stools are clay colored.
    Obstructive
  12. What drug is usually given when patient has Ascites?
    Aldactone (diuretic therapy)- given b/c it is potassium sparing
  13. What is the goal of dietary modification in the patient with ascites?
    • achieve a negative sodium balance
    • avoid salt
    • use salt substitutes (very high in potassium)
  14. ______ occurs with profound liver failure
    hepatic encephalopathy
  15. _____ results from accumulation of ammonia and other toxic metabolites in the blood
    hepatic encephalopathy
  16. ______ is considered to be the major etiologic factor in the development of encephalopathy
    ammonia
  17. What levels will be sky high in hepatic encephalopathy?
    Ammonia levels
  18. What does lactulose do?`
    Increases excretion of ammonia in the stool
  19. Fecotr hepaticus (sweet, fecal odor to breath), asterixis (flapping temor of the hands), and AMS are all s & s of _________
    hepatic encephalopathy
  20. What are the side effects of lactulose?
    • Intestinal bloating and cramping
    • Potential for skin break down (due to diaper)
  21. What sign is monitored because it may indicate medication overdose when taking lactulose?
    Watery diarrheal stools
  22. What nutrtional guidelines do you need to give patient who has hepatic encephalopathy?
    • Reduce dietary protein to 20 g/day
    • matain low protein, high calorie diet
  23. what complication can you think of related to balloon tamponade?
    • ASPIRATION!
    • - patient is already vomiting
  24. Where do you get hepatitis A from?
    fecal/oral
  25. Where do you get hepatitis B,C, and D from?
    blood
  26. Where do you get hepatitis E from?
    fecal/ oral
  27. ______ stores bile. You need to be near bathroom if you eat high fat content foods
    Gallbladder
  28. _________: n & v, pain in the midsternal area of the right shoulder.
    cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder)
  29. The 4 F's are risk factors for what? (fat, forty, flatulent, female)
    Cholelithiasis
  30. What type of vegetable is high in vitamin K?
    dark green leafy
  31. When do we instruct patients to avoid dark green leafy vegetables?
    When taking coumadin
  32. ________: patient presents with pain, sometimes jaundie, stool is clay colored or like putty
    cholelithiasis
  33. In which procedure are gallstones visualized and removed?
    ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
  34. What nutritional teaching do you need to provide for patinet with cholelithiasis?
    Low fat diet, no eggs, cream, pork fried foods, cheese rich dressing, gas forming vegetables, alcohol
  35. How long does the procedure take to dissolve gallstones?
    6-12 months

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