HA 261 Week 3

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    • "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte"
    • 1884-86
    • Seurat
    • goal: to correct Impressionism; it was too shallow and improvisational (needs more thought)
    • subject: leisure, culture, and everyday life
    • reduces figures to schematic, geometric shapes
    • changes direction of paint strokes with each figure/grass/lake
    • many classes represented by clothing, posture, activity BUT de-individualized
    • Pointillism - "chromoluminism"
    • sense of stillness/permanence
    • "Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves"
    • Paul Cezanne
    • 1902-06
    • solid presence of objects - what is underneath - architectonic
    • squishes foreground/middle ground/background
    • builds up forms out of paint and makes solid, durable marks
    • sense of the eternal (less about moment)
    • "Still Life with Basket of Apples"
    • Paul Cezanne
    • 1893
    • everything in world can be boiled down to a geometric shape
    • tablecloth becomes piece of architecture - it has structure, form, and is solid
    • everything is rolling off table
    • avoids corners - they are mostly cropped out of frame
    • lady fingers and wine bottle painted from different perspectives (ignored "Academic" rules)
    • disrupts easy viewership and makes viewer work to understand piece
    • "Starry Night"
    • Vincent Van Gogh
    • 1889
    • painted from insane asylum
    • thick, visible, gestural brushstrokes - very physically involved
    • - curvilinear, swelling, organic shapes - expressionistic - everything moves and comes to life - "activated surface"
    • full moon edited to half moon
    • combination of real and imagined - French countryside is there but Dutch village superimposed into painting
    • cyprus tree imitates church spire, connects heaven and earth, and connects the bottom 1/3 to the top 1/3
    • "The Night Cafe"
    • Vincent Van Gogh
    • 1888
    • expresses emotion through color, brushstroke, composition
    • tones are warmer (reds/yellows/lime green) and are meant to overwhelm viewer - jarring
    • interior space - closed in, confined
    • seedy underbelly of world; keeping mankind from nature/spirituality
    • oppressive "place to ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime"
    • floor's perspective is off - moving BACK
    • figures in margins - isolated from each other
    • pool table = coffin
    • shadow = open grave
    • "Mahana No Atua (The Day of the God)"
    • Paul Gauguin
    • 1894
    • tertiary colors (pink, mauve, orangy/yellow)
    • women imitate curves of pools of color
    • supposed to raise more questions than are answered
    • Tahiti - exotic, erotic - more superstitious, traditional - painting has racist undertones
    • transitions from naturalistic to abstract top to bottom
    • "The Sleeping Gypsy"
    • Henri Rousseau
    • 1897
    • naive art - largely self-taught, reflects growing interest in primitive art, folk art style, admired academic art
    • sharp colors, precise outlines, fantastical imagery
    • creates narrative and mood using few objects
    • lonely, eerie
    • flat colors, simplified forms
    • "The Burghers of Calais"
    • Rodin
    • 1884-89
    • admired, respected public figures
    • each figure shows different emotion dealing with their fate - individuality
    • 360 degrees - intended for the viewed to walk around and interact with it
    • 100 Years War England vs. France
    • Burgher = important figure in society that volunteered to give their lives to take the embargo off France
    • "View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts after a Thunderstorm - The Oxbow"
    • Thomas Cole
    • 1836
    • defining American nationality
    • Romantic/Realist - picturesque and sublime
    • religious interpretation of land - manifest destiny
    • divided composition - untouched wilderness (stormy) and farmed fields (Sunny)
    • "The Gross Clinic"
    • Thomas Eakins
    • 1875
    • Dr Samuel Gross at Jefferson Medical College - students observing operation; novel atypical subject matter
    • portrait of a great man but puts him right in the action
    • use of light
    • patient's mother - male/female dichotomy?
    • "Snap the Whip"
    • 1872
    • Winslow Homer
    • children - innocent and full of promise for the future; HOPE
    • rural simplicity - city is a complicate place; agrarian way of life is being lost
    • subtle symbolism of the possibilities men had after the Civil War (run, stay, etc.)?
    • "The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit"
    • John Singer Sargent
    • 1882
    • an American family in their Paris apartment
    • spread figures out - space between the 4 daughters defined by rugs, windows and door
    • EFFECT: negative space, dark/light, color - all compelling
    • 4 daughters are all different ages - represent phases of childhood/growing up
    • eldest 2 further away and engulfed in darkness
    • "The Banjo Lesson"
    • Tanner
    • 1893
    • 2 lights sources - window and fire
    • familial relationship - physical intimacy, domestic setting
    • humanized interaction
    • figures are individualized
    • painting overcomes stereotypical treatment of banjo playing as entertainment for a white audience
    • "Adams Memorial"
    • Augustus Saint-Gaudens
    • (1886-1891)
    • bronze sculpture
    • cemetery memorial for tomb of Mrs. Henry Adams (suicide)
    • peaceful yet melancholic
    • immobile, eternal vigilance and mystery
    • allegorical figure
    • universality - for specific person/place but still speaks to the feeling of mourning - public/private dichotomy
    • "Guaranty Trust Building"
    • Louis Sullivan
    • 1894-95
    • Buffalo, NY
    • new building materials - ceramic tiles, glass, steel - allowed for flexibility/experimentation in design
    • new structures (train stations, dept stores) lacked precedents
    • mass produced materials - cheap fast, abundant
    • urbanization and industrialization
    • steel curtain wall - skeletal frame
    • 3 sections: base/middle/top
    • detailed
    • "Brooklyn Bridge"
    • Roebling
    • 1869-1883
    • suspension bridge (one of the first!)
    • steel wire
    • emulates Gothic cathedral in the arches - looking back on tradition to combine old with new technology
    • "Woolworth Building"
    • Cass Gilbert
    • 1911-1913
    • scale + proportion - things must make sense
    • "Cathedral of Commerce" - gothic spire
  1. Architectonic
    • suggests that its composition is rhythmic, structured & controlled
    • structure as a predominant element
    • A focus on organized space--whether based on mathematics or intuition--seems to be a manifestation of the particular compositional concerns of the individual artist
    • Cezanne "Still Life with Basket of Apples"
  2. Avant-garde
    Literally, those in advance or ahead of their time - or thought to be so.
  3. Pointillism
    • The technique of painting with small areas of unmixed pigments juxtaposed so that they combine optically when seen from a certain distance.
    • Seurat "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grand Jatte"
  4. Primitivism
    • Tendency of Western artists to emulate motifs or techniques associated with so-called "primitive" cultures.
    • Gauguin "Mahana No Atua"
  5. Naive Art
    • largely self-taught, reflects growing interest in primitive art, prehistoric/folk style, characterized by terms like "childlike simplicity" (pejorative)
    • Rousseau, "The Sleeping Gypsy"
  6. Hudson River School
    • Romantic painting tradition
    • group of paintings with diverse group of artists (not associated) working in New York and New England
    • landscapes presented pristine wilderness and untouched beauty - touched by divinity

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HA 261 Week 3
2011-09-19 02:47:50
art history flash cards

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